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Full text of "The volunteer : containing exercises and movements of infantry, light infantry, riflemen and cavaly"



/ 



SAN FRANCISCO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

mil wiSiSmfSSiSfSi UBRARY 

vnpn 

J 1223 90148 7513 

REFERENCE BOOK 

Not to be taken from the Library 



TO THE 

VOLUNTEER MILITIA OP CALIFORNIA. 



In the preparation of this work I have en- 
deavored to present a system of Tactics which 
would afford the means of obtaining and impart- 
ing with facility the most thorough and prac- 
tical Elementary Instruction possible for the 
soldier connected with either arm of the ser- 
vice, and thus to remedy one of the greatest 
defects of the Militia System of our whole 
country. The immediate object of our mili- 
tary organizations is not to attempt the in- 
struction of the whole body of the militia, but 
to establish a volunteer force sufficient for all 

[Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, 
by Wji. C. Kibbe, in the Clerk's Office, for the Northern 
District of California.] 



IV PREFACE. 

emergencies of a local character, and at the 
same time to fit them for a proper discharge 
of any sphere of duties known in active ser- 
vice. 

To the volunteer soldiers, mainly, must we 
look for men to officer our troops in times of 
danger. 

If this volume is found, therefore, to adapt 
itself to our wants in this regard, its use will 
not only establish uniformity in drill, but con- 
duce greatly to the present and prospective 
efficiency of our State troops, and accomplish 
the ends desired. 

WM. C. KIBBE. 



RECOMMENDATIONS, 



Gen. Wm. C. Kibbe, 

Adft Gen'l of California : 

Sir:— Having carefully and critically examined your new 
book on Military Tactics, we are pleased to recommend the 
work as the best adapted for the purposes intended of any 
Tactics extant. 

The instruction is simple, concise and well arranged, com- 
prising everything of real utility required for Infantry, Light 
Infantry, Kiile, Cavalry and Artillery Companies ; combining, 
at the same time, all the improvements of the present day. 

It is indeed a book which should be in the hands of every 
volunteer soldier. We, therefore, cordially recommend it to 
volunteer companies, as in every way adapted to their wants, 
and likely to secure that uniformity in their drill so much to 
be desired. 
(Signed,) B. D. Fry, 

Capt. Sutter Eifles ; 
M. D. Corse, 

1st Lt. Sutter Rifles ; 
Wm. R. Gorham, 

Capt. San Francisco Blues ; 
Thomas D. Johns, 

Capt. 1st Cal. Guard, Light Artillery ; 
Isaac Rowell, 

Capt. 1st Light Dragoons ; 
John A. Clark, 

Capt. City Guard ; 
"W. Neely Johnson, 

Capt. Marion Rifles ; 
C. C. Butler, 

Capt. City Guard, Stockton ; 



VI 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 



Thos. Hayes, 

Capt.S.F. National Lancers; 
R. B. Hampton, 

Lt. 1st Cal. Guard ; 
♦I. W. Whaling, 

Lt. 1st Light Dragoons ; 
James F. Curtis, 

lstLt. Cal. Guard; 
Geo. F. Watson, 

1st Lt. City Guard ; 
Ed. A. Rigg, 

1st Serg't Marion Rifles. 

in'every* waTwell llZltto^? »«*«»* ™* «** « 
intended. Y lapted ^ toe purposes for which it is 

<-^H. r. feTONE. 

Bvt. Capt. U. S. Army. 
I concur with the above recommendations 

Geo. H. Thomas, 

Maj. U. S. Army. 

mend^onT 011 Pl6aSUre fa su «°| to the aW ^^ 

-Ci. O. DTEPTOE, 

Col. TJ. S. Army. 

have^l[ U „" e C0 ^^ c n e '»«« opinions of those officers who 
Brig.' Gen'l Ki ? bbe ,1 have noh7^ ° f , dri11 ' P r «*"ted by 

John E. Wool, 

Maj. General. 



RECOMMENDATIONS. Vll 



Gen. Wm. C. Kibbe, 

Adjt-Genl of California: 

Sir: — We fully concur with many others in approbation of 
your work on Military Tactics. While concise and of con- 
venient form, it is comprehensive, accurate and, in many 
important particulars, superior to any similar work yet pub- 
lished. 

We most cordially join in recommending it to the Volunteer 
Companies of the State. 

Henry Meredith, 

Capt. Sacramento Guards ; 

L. L. Baker, 

1st Ser^'t Sacramento Guards ; 

E. E. Eyre, 

1st Serg't Sutter Rifles; 

John M. Peterson, 

1st Serg't S. F. National Lancers. 



THE 

VOLUNTEER: 



CONTAINING 



EXERCISES AND MOVEMENTS 



INFANTRY, LIGHT INFANTRY, RIFLEMEN 
AND CAVALRY, 



COMPILED FROM THE MOST APPROVED WORK8, AND DEDI- 
CATED TO THE VOLUNTEERS OP CALIFORNIA. 



BY WM. C. KIBBE, 

Quarter -Master and Adjutant- General State of' California. 



SACRAMENTO: 

B. B. REDDING, STATE PRINTER. 

1855. 



DESCRIPTION OF A MUSKET. 



The principal parts of a Musket are the fol- 
lowing: 

1st— The Barrel. 2d— Lock. 3d— Stock. 
4th — Rammer. 5th — Mounting. 



1— The Upper. 

2— Middle. 

3— Tail-Bands. 

4— The Swell. 

5— -The Trigger. 

6— The Guard. 

T— The Swivels. 

8— The Small of the Stock, (or Handle of the 
Piece.) 

9— The Butt. 
10— The Heel of the Butt. 
11— The Front Screw of the Butt Plate. 
12— The Butt Plate. 
13— The Toe (or Beak) of the Butt. 
14 — The Lock. The Plate opposite the Lock is 

called the S, or Counter Plate. 
15— The Bayonet. 

16 — The Eammer. There is Upper, Middle and 
Tail-Pipe; Butt of, and Little End o f 
Eammer. 

IT— Lock-Plate. 



The names belonging to the Barrel are — the 
Muzzle, Breech, Bore, Sight, Breech Pin, and 
Tung Screw, which fastens the Breech to the 
Stock. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 



FIRST PRINCIPLES. 

This will be taught, if practicable, to one recruit 
at a time ; but two, or at most three recruits may be 
united, when the number is great compared with 
that of the instructors. In this case, the recruits 
will be placed in a single rank, at one pace apart. 
The recruit or recruits in this part will be without 
arms. 

POSITION OF THE SOLDIER. 

Heels on the same line and as close together as the 
conformation of the man will permit — the feet form- 
ing, with each other, something less than a right 
angle, the toes equally turned out, the knees straight 
without stiffness; the body erect on the hips, the 
upper part inclining a little forward ; the shoulders 
square and falling equally ; arms hanging naturally, 
elbows near the bod}^ the palm of the hand turned 
a little to the front, the little fingers behind the seam 
of the pantaloons or the center of the thigh ; the face 
well to the front, the chin a little drawn in, without 
constraint, and the eyes striking the ground at the 
distance of fifteen paces. 



4 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

REMARKS. 

Heels on the same line. 

Heels more or less closed — (according to the confor- 
mation of the recruit.) 

Toes equally turned out and not forming too large 
an angle. 

Knees extended without stiffness. 

The body erect on the hips. 

The upper part of the body inclined forward. 

Shoulders square. 

The arms hanging naturally, elboivs near the body, 
the palm of the hand a little turned to the front, the 
little finger behind the seam of the pantaloons. 

The face well to the front, the chin a little drawn in, 
without constraint. 

Eyes cast direct to the front. 

1. Eyes EIGHT. 2. FRONT. 

At the word right, turn the head gently to the 
right, so as to bring the inner corner of the left eye 
in a line with the center of the body, the eyes fixed 
on the line of the eyes of the men (or supposed to 
be) in the same rank. 

At the word front, resume the direct position. 

Eyes — LEFT, will be executed by inverse means. 

The instructor will take care that the movement of 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. O 

the head does not derange the squareness of the 
shoulders. 

REST. 

At the word rest, carry the right foot six inches in 
rear of the left heel, cross the hands in front, the 
backs of them outward, the left hand uppermost, and 
stand at ease. 

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD. 

At the first word the recruit will fix his attention ; 
at the second, he will resume the prescribed position 
and steadiness. 

FACINGS. 

1. Squad by the right (or left) flank. 2. Right (or 
left) FACE. 

At the second command, turn on the left heel, 
raising a little the left toe, and at the same time 
bring the right heel to the side of the left and on the 
same line, so that the rear line of heels shall be ex- 
actly at right angles with their former line. 

1. Squad. 2. About— FACE. 

At the word about, turn on the heel, bring the left 
toe to the front, carry the right foot to the rear, the 
hollow opposite to, and three inches from the left 
heel, the feet square to each other ; seize at the same 
time the inner corner of the cartridge-box with the 
right hand. 

At the word face, turn on both heels, raise the toe 
a little, extend the thighs and face to the rear; bring 
the right heel by the side of the left, and quit the 
hold of the cartridge-box. 



b SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

When under arms, turn the left hand at the word 
about, as in the first motion of present arms, and re- 
place the hand and piece at the instant of bringing 
the right heel to the side of the left. 

The instructor will take care that these motions do 
not derange the erect position of the body. 

PRINCIPLES OF THE DIRECT STEP. 

The length of the direct step, or pace, in common 
time, is twenty-eight inches, reckoning from heel to 
heel, and in swiftness, at the rate of ninety in a min- 
ute. 

The instructor will place himself, ten or twelve 
paces from, and facing to the recruit, he will explain 
minutely the principle and mechanism of the step ; 
he will himself execute slowly and carefully the step 
and then command : 

1. Squad, forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the final command, feel the weight of the body 
on the right leg, without bending the left knee. 

At the second command, step off with the left foot, 
and carry it straight forward, (the body moving at 
the same instant) the sole near the ground, the thighs 
extended, the toes pointed a little downwards and 
slightly turned out, plant the foot flat, without shock, 
twenty-eight inches from the right. Next advance 
the right foot and plant it as above, the heel twenty- 
eight inches from the heel of the left foot, and thus 
continue to march without crossing the legs or strik- 
ing the one against the other, without turning the 
shoulders and preserving always the face direct to 
the front. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. T 

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 

At the command halt, which will be given as a 
foot is coming to the ground, stop short on the foot 
then forward and bring up the foot in the rear to the 
side of the other, without shock. 

REMARKS. 

Feel the weight of the body on the right leg at the 
command forward. 

The toes depressed, without constraint or affectation. 

The toes and knees slightly turned out. 

The upper part of the body forward. 

To march with the thigh extended. 

To pass the foot near the ground. 

To plant the foot flat, without shock. 

The face or eyes direct to the front. 

THE OBLIQUE STEP. 
1. Eight oblique. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, given at the instant the 
left foot comes to the ground, carry the right foot 
obliquely to the right and front, twenty-six inches 
from the left, and eighteen inches on that side, turn- 
ing the toes to the front in order to keep square the 
right shoulder ; next carry the left foot, by the short- 
est time, eighteen inches in front of the right heel. 

The oblique march to the left will be executed 



8 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

according to the same principles; the command, 
inarch, will be given at the instant the right foot 
comes to the ground, and care taken to keep forward 
the left shoulder. 

When the recruit shall be well established in the 
oblique step, the instructor need not too vigorously 
observe the lengths prescribed for it. He will give 
as an essential principle, to gain as much ground to 
the right (or left,) and proportionably less to the front, 
without deranging the line of the shoulders or posi- 
tion of the head, which must always be the same as 
in the direct march. 

TO RESUME THE DIRECT MARCH. 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, given at the instant either 
foot comes to the ground, resume the direct march. 

PRINCIPLES OF SHOULDERED ARMS. 

The recruit being in the position of the soldier, the 
instructor will cause him to turn up the left hand, 
without bending the wrist, the left forearm only 
acting. The instructor will raise the piece perpen- 
dicularly, and place it as follows : 

The piece in the left hand, the arm but a very 
little bent ; the elbow back, near the body ; the palm 
of the hand pressing on the outer flat of the butt, 
the outer edge of the butt on the upper joints of the 
fingers, (the inner edge on the lower joints of the 
fingers, and the ends inside,) the heel of the butt 
between the fore and middle fingers the thumb on 
the front screw of the butt-plate, the remaining fingers 
under the butt ; the butt more or less kept back, ac- 
cording to the conformation of the recruit, so that the 
piece, seen from the front (or side) shall appear per- 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 9 

pendicular, and also that the movement of the thigh 
in marching, may not raise it or cause it to waver ; 
the stock below the tail-band, resting against the hol- 
low of the shoulder, just within the joint, the right 
arm hanging naturally, as prescribed in the position 
of the soldier. 

MANUAL OF ARMS. 

The manual of arms will be taught to two men 
placed in the same rank, elbow to elbow, and next, 
in two ranks, that is, one thirteen inches behind the 
other. 

Each command will be executed in one time (or 
pause) which will be divided into motions, the better 
to make known the mechanism. 

The rate or time of each motion, with the excep- 
tions herein indicated, is fixed at the ninetieth part 
of a minute ; but in order not to fatigue the attention, 
the instructor will, at first, look more particularly to 
the execution of the motions, without requiring a 
nice observance of the cadence, to which he will 
bring the recruits progressively, and after they shall 
have become a little familiarized with the handling 
of the piece. 

The motions relative to the cartridge, to the ram- 
mer and fixing and unfixing of the bayonet, cannot 
(well) be executed at the rate prescribed. The in- 
structor will, however, labor to cause these motions 
to be executed with promptness, and above all, with 
regularity. 

In all the times (or pauses) in the manual of arms, 
which are composed of three or four motions, the first 
two motions will be a little quickened. 

The last syllable of the command will decide the 
brisk execution of the first motion of each time (or 
pause). The commands two, three, and four, will de- 



10 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

cide the brisk execution of the other motions. As 
soon as the recruits shall well comprehend the posi- 
tions of the several motions, they will not rest on the 
motions ; the mechanism of the time will neverthe- 
less be observed, as well to give a perfect use of the 
piece, as to avoid the sinking of, or slurring over, 
either of the motions. 

Before proceeding to the manual of arms, the 
recruits at shouldered arms, repeat the movements of 
eyes — right, left, and front, and the facings. 

Present- AEMB. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Turn the piece with the left hand, 
the lock out, and seize the small at the same time 
with the right hand, the piece perpendicular and de- 
tached from the shoulder, the left hand remaining un- 
der the butt. 

Second Motion. Complete the turning inwards of 
the piece, so as to bring it erect before the center 
of the body, the rammer to the front, the right hand 
under and against the guard ; seize it smartly at the 
same time with the left hand above the lock, the 
thumb extended along the barrel and on the stock, 
the forearm resting on the body without restraint, 
and the hand at the hight of the elbow. 

Shoulder-- ARMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Turn the piece with the right hand, 
the barrel out, raise and support it against the left 
shoulder with the right hand, drop the left hand 
under the butt, the right hand resting on, without 
grasping the small. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 11 

Second Motion. Drop quickly the right hand into 
its position. 

Support— ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. With the right hand seize briskly 
the small of the stock, four inches below the lock, 
raising a little, but not turning the piece. 

Second Motion. Take the left hand from the butt ; 
extend the left forearm upwards across the body, 
under the cock, the hand flat on the right breast. 

Third Motion. Drop the right arm smartly into 
its position. 

REST. 

At the word rest, carry the right foot six inches in 
the rear of the left heel, bring up smartly the right 
hand to the small of the stock and stand at ease. 

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD. 

At the first command, the recruit will fix his at- 
tention ; at the second, he will resume the third mo- 
tion of support arms. 

Carry— ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Carry quickly the right hand to the 
small. 

Second Motion. Place quickly the left hand upon 
the butt. 

Third Motion. Let fall smartly the right into its 
position and drop with the left, at the same time, the 
piece into the position of shoulder arms. 



12 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

Order— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Drop the piece smartly by extend- 
ing the left arm, seize it at the same time with the 
right hand above and near the tail-band; (without 
the least pause) quit the hold of the left hand and 
carry the piece opposite to the right shoulder, the 
rammer in front, the little ringer behind the barrel, 
the right hand supported against the hip, the butt 
three inches from the ground, the piece erect, the left 
hand hanging by the side. 

Second Motion. Let the piece slip through the 
right hand to the ground, without shock, and take 
the position about to be described. 

POSITION OF ORDERED ARMS. 

The hand low, the barrel between thumb and fore- 
finger extended along the stock ; the other fingers 
extended and joined ; the muzzle about two inches 
from the right shoulder ; the rammer in front ; the 
toe (or beak) of the butt against, and in a line with 
the toe of the right foot, the barrel perpendicular. 

REST. 

At the command rest, carry the right foot six inches 
in rear of the left heel, the piece resting against the 
hollow of the right shoulder, the hands crossed in 
front, the backs of them outward, the left hand up- 
permost, and stand at ease. 

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD. 

At the second word, the recruits will resume the 
position order arms. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 13 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Raise smartly the piece with the 
right hand, carry it against the left shoulder, turning 
it, so as to bring the barrel to the front ; place, at 
the same time, the left hand under the butt, and slip 
the right hand down to the lock. 

Second Motion. Let fall smartly the right hand 
into its position. 

Charge— BAYONET. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Make a half face to the right on the 
left heel ; bring the left toe to the front, place at the 
same time the right foot behind and at right angles 
with the left ; the hollow of the right foot opposite 
to, and about three inches from the left heel ; turn the 
piece with the left hand, the lock outwards, and 
seize the handle at the same time with the right 
hand, the piece perpendicular and detached from the 
shoulder ; leave the left hand under the butt. 

Second Motion. Bring down the piece with the 
right hand into the left ; the latter seizing it a little 
in advance of the tail-band, the thumb over the bar- 
rel, the barrel up, the left elbow near the body, the 
right hand supported against the hips, the point of 
the bayonet at the hight of the eye, the body natu- 
rally inclined a little forward. The recruits of the 
rear rank will take care not to touch their file-leaders 
with the points of their bayonets. 



14 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Face to the front by turning on the 
left heel, bring up the right by the side of the left 
heel ; at the same time spring up the piece with the 
(left hand into the right, the cock falling on the fore- 
finger, the thumb on the S plate, and carry it with 
the ) right hand to the left shoulder ; place the left 
hand under the butt. 

Second Motion. Let fall smartly the right hand 
into its position. 

Trail— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. As the first motion of order arms. 

Second Motion. Incline a little the muzzle to the 
front, the butt to the rear, and about three inches 
from the ground, the right hand, supported at the hip, 
will sustain the piece so that the men of the rear 
rank may not touch with their bayonets the men in 
front of them. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 

At the command shoulder, raise the piece perpen- 
dicularly in the right hand ; at the command arms, 
execute what has been prescribed for the shoulder 
from the position of order arms. 

To right shoulder, shift — ARMS. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Turn the piece with the left hand, 
lock to the front, seize it at the same with the right 
hand at the small. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 15 

Second Motion. With the right hand place the 
piece on the right shoulder, the left hand not quitting 
the butt, the cock above and resting on the shoulder 
the muzzle up, (slip the right hand down to the toe 
of the butt,) and sustain the piece in this position by 
placing the right hand on the flat of the butt, so that 
the toe of the butt may be "between the first two 
fingers, the other two on the butt-plate. 

Third Motion. Let fall the left hand by the side. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece detaching it from 
the shoulder and extend the right arm ; seize it with 
the left hand a little below the tail-band. 

Second Motion. Carry the piece against the left 
shoulder, turning the barrel to the front (in turning, 
place the thumb on the S plate, the cock resting on 
the fore-finger,) at the same time place the left hand 
under the butt. 

Third Motion. Let the right hand fall into its 
position. 

Arms— AT WILL. 

One time and one motion. 

Carry the piece at pleasure on either shoulder, or 
with one or both hands, the muzzle always up. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
Retake smartly the position of shoulder arms. 

Unfix— -BAYONET. 
One time and three motions. 
First Motion. Drop the piece by a smart exten- 



16 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

sion of the left arm, seize it with the right hand 
above the lock and below the tail-band. 

Second Motion. Drop the piece with the right 
hand along the left thigh, seize it with the left hand 
above the right, lengthen out the left arm, rest the 
butt on the ground without shock ; and carry at the 
same time, the right hand to the ketch of the bayo- 
net, turn it with the thumb and seize the bayonet at 
the socket and shank, so that the lower end of the 
socket may be about an inch below the heel of the 
palm, so that in wresting off the bayonet the thumb 
may be extended along the blade. 

Third Motion. Wrest off the bayonet, drop the 
muzzle of the piece into the hollow of the right arm, 
and with both hands place the bayonet in the scab- 
bard, retake the piece into the left hand below the 
middle band, place the right little finger on the butt 
of the rammer, bring the muzzle of the piece near 
the left shoulder. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece with the left hand 
along the left side, the hand at the hight of the chin, 
the forearm touching the piece, the barrel to the front, 
drop at the same time the right hand to seize the 
piece a little above the handle, the fore-finger touch- 
ing the lock and the thumb on the S plate. 

Second Motion. Raise the piece with the right 
hand, drop the left and place it under the butt ; sup- 
port the piece with the right hand against the 
shoulder, in the position prescribed for shouldered 
arms, the right hand resting on, without grasping, 
the piece. 

Third Motion. Let fall smartly the right hand 
into its position by the side of the thigh. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. IT 

Secure— ARUS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Seize quickly the piece with the 
right hand, the thumb on the counter-plate, and the 
fore-finger aginst the cock ; detach the piece from the 
shoulder at the instant, the barrel to the front, seize 
it at the tail-band with the left hand, the thumb ex- 
tended on the rammer, the piece erect, opposite to 
the shoulder, the left elbow on the piece. 

Second Motion. Reverse the piece, pass it under 
the left arm, the left hand remaining at the tail-band, 
the thumb on the rammer to prevent it from sliding 
out, the little finger resting against the hip and the 
right hand falling at the same time into its position. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece with left hand, but 
not too suddenly, lest the rammer should fly out ; 
seize the handle with the right hand to support it 
against the shoulder, quit the hold of the left hand 
and place quickly this hand under the butt. 

Second Motion. Let fall smartly the right hand 
into its position ; drop at the same time the piece in- 
to the position of shouldered arms. 

Fix— BAYONET. 

One time and two motions. 

First and Second Motions. As the first and second 
motions of unfix bayonet, except that at the end of 
the second motion the right hand will go to seize the 
bayonet by the socket and shank, so that the lower 
(now upper) end of the socket shall extend about an 
inch above the heel of the palm. 



18 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

Third Motion. Draw the bayonet from the scab- 
bard, carry and fix it on the muzzle ; seize the ketch 
with the fore-finger, turn it smartly, place the right 
little finger on the butt of the rammer. 

Shoulder—* ARMS. 

(Same as in Unfix Bayonet.) 

LOAD IN TEN TIMES. 

1. LOAD. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Drop the piece by a smart exten- 
sion of the left arm, without depressing the shoulder, 
advance the heel of the right foot into the hollow of 
the left ; seize the piece smartly at or near the tail- 
band. 

Second Motion. Carry the left hand from the butt 
to the middle band, dropping the piece with the 
right along the side, resting the butt upon the ground 
about three inches from the left heel, the muzzle op- 
posite the center of the body, the piece pressing 
against the left thigh, the left hand extended upon 
the piece without restraint ; carry the right hand to 
the cartridge-box. 

2. Handle— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Seize a cartridge with the thumb and two next 
fingers and place it between the teeth, the right 
elbow at the hight of the hand. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 19 

3. Tear— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Tear the paper down to the powder, hold the car- 
tridge upright between the thumb and two next 
fingers, near the top; carry a't the same the right 
hand to the hight of, and near the muzzle in front. 

4. Charge— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Fix the eye on the muzzle, turn quickly the back 
of the right hand towards the body, in order to dis- 
charge the powder into the barrel, raise the elbow to 
the hight of the wrist, shake the cartridge, force it 
into the muzzle, and leave the hand reversed, the 
fingers closed, but not clenched. 

5. Draw— RAMMER. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Drop smartly the right elbow and 
seize the rammer between the thumb and fore-finger 
bent, the other fingers shut ; draw it smartly, extend- 
ing the arm, seize the rammer again at the middle, 
between the thumb and fore-finger, the hand re- 
versed, the palm to the front, the nails up, the eyes 
following the movement of the hand ; clear the ram- 
mer from the pipes by again extending the arm. 

Second Motion. Turn rapidly the rammer between 
the bayonet and the face, closing the fingers, the 
rammers of the rear rank grazing the right shoulders 
of the men of the same file in front, respectivel}-, the 
rammer parallel to the bayonet, the arm extended, 
the butt of the rammer opposite to the muzzle, but 
not yet inserted, the eyes fixed on the muzzle. 



20 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

Third Motion. Insert the butt of the rammer and 
force it down as low as the hand. 

6. .Ram— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Press the thumb against the rammer and extend the 
arm to its full length ; seize the rammer between the 
right thumb extended and the forefinger bent, the 
other fingers closed; with force ram home twice, 
bring the elbow well in to the body back of the hand 
to the front, and seize the rammer at the little end, 
between the thumb and fore-finger bent, the other 
fingers closed, the right elbow touching the body. 

7. Beturn— RAMMER. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Draw briskly the rammer, re-seize 
it at the middle between the thumb and fore-finger, 
the hand reversed, the palm to the front, the nails up, 
the eyes following the movement of the hand, clear 
the rammer from the barrel by extending the arm. 

Second Motion. Turn rapidly the rammer between 
the bayonet and the face, closing the fingers, the 
rammers of the rear rank grazing the right shoul- 
ders of the men in the same file in front, respectively, 
the rammer parallel to the bayonet, the arm extend- 
ed, the little end of the rammer opposite to the first 
pipe, but not yet inserted, the eyes fixed on that pipe. 

Third Motion. Insert the little end, and with the 
thumb, which will follow the movement, force it as 
low as the middle band ; raise quickly the hand a 
little bent, place the little finger on the butt of the 
rammer, and force it down ; lower the left hand on 
the barrel to the extent of the arm, without depress- 
ing the shoulder. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 21 

8. Cast— ABOUT. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Spring up the piece upon the left 
side with the left hand, slide the left hand down to 
the tail-band ; seize the piece with the right hand at 
the small. 

Second Motion. Turn upon the left heel, bring the 
toe of the left foot square to the front ; carry the 
right foot to the rear, the hollow pressing against the 
left heel ; carry the piece to the right side to the posi- 
tion of charge bayonet, resting the small of the piece 
upon the right hip. 

9. PRIME. 
One time and one motion. 
Half cock the piece by placing the right thumb 
upon the cock, the fingers under the small ; drop the 
head a little, remove the old cap with one of the lin- 
gers of the right hand, carry the right hand to the 
cap-box, seize a cap with the thumb and fore-finger, 
place it upon the tube ; press it down smartly with 
the thumb and retake the piece at the small. 

10. Shoulder— ARMS. 
(Same as from Cliarge Bayonet.) 

TO LOAD IN FOUR TIMES. 

The object of this is to prepare the recruits to load 
at will and to cause them to distinguish the times 
which require the greatest precision and attention. 
Such as charge cartridge, ram cartridge and prime. 
It will be divided as follows : 

The first time will be executed at the end of the 
command; the other three at the words two, three 
and four. 



22 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

1. Load in four times. 2. LOAD. 

First Time. Execute the first time of load. Han- 
dle cartridge and tear cartridge. 

Two. Charge cartridge, draw rammer, ram car- 
tridge. 

Three. Return rammer, cast about. 

Four. Prime, shoulder arms. 

TO LOAD AT WILL. 

Execute the loadings as in four times ; turn the 
rammer without interfering with that of the man in 
front, or on the side. Neither miss the muzzle nor 
the pipes of the rammer, and do not drop the car- 
tridge, are objects of essential importance, to which 
recruits will give great attention. 

The instructor will exact regularity in the execu- 
tion of the times, and in the positions ; he will habit- 
uate the recruits, by degrees, to load with the great- 
est possible promptitude, each without regulating 
himself by his neighbor; and above all, without 
waiting for him. 

READY. 
One time and four motions. 

First Motion. As the first motion of charge bayo- 
net, except that the hollow of the right is brought up 
against the heel of the left. 

Second Motion. Bring the piece with the right 
hand to the middle of the body, placing the left hand, 
the little finger touching the lock-plate the thumb 
extended on the stock at the hight of the chin, the 
S plate almost turned towards the body, the rammer 
obliquely to the left and front. 

Third Motion. Place the thumb on the head of 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 23 

the cock, the fore-finger under, and on the guard, and 
the other three fingers joined to the first, the elbow 
at the hight of the hand. 

Fourth Motion. Close the elbow smartly to the 
body, in cocking ; seize the piece at the handle, let 
it descend along the body in the left hand to the tail- 
band, which will remain at the hight of the shoulder. 

AIM. 

Drop smartly the muzzle, the left hand remaining 
at the tail-band ; support the butt against the right 
shoulder, the left elbow a little down ; shut the left 
eye, direct the right along the barrel ; drop the head 
upon the butt to catch the object, and place the fore- 
finger on the trigger. 

The rear rank will, at the same time, carry the 
the right foot about eight inches towards the left heel 
of the man next on the right. 

FIRE. 

Apply the fore-finger with force to the trigger with- 
out further lowering or turning the head, and remain 
in that position. 

LOAD. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Face to the front ; bring up the 
right heel to the hollow of the left foot, at the same 
time spring up the piece with the left hand into the 
right, the cock falling on the fore-finger, the thumb 
on the S plate, and carry it with the right hand to 
the left shoulder. 

Second Motion. Slide the left hand up to the mid- 
dle band, dropping the piece with the left hand along 
the side, resting the butt upon the ground about 



24 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

three inches from the left heel, the muzzle opposite 
the center of the body, the piece pressing against the 
left thigh, the left hand extended upon the piece 
without restraint ; carry the right hand to the car- 
tridge box. 

"When after firing, the instructor, instead of re- 
loading, shall wish to bring the squad to a shoulder, 
he will command : 

ShoiMer— ARMS. 

(Same as from Unfix Bayonet.) 

The squad being in the position of aim, to habitu- 
ate the recruits to wait for the word fire, the com- 
mand may be given : 

Recover — ARMS. 

Withdraw the finger from the trigger, throw up 
smartly the muzzle and retake the position of the 
fourth motion of ready. 

If, from this position, the squad is to be brought to 
a shoulder, the command is given : 

Shoulder— ARMS. 

At the word shoulder, face to the front, bring the 
piece to the middle of the body, the left thumb at 
the hight of the chin, the little fore-finger touching 
the lock-plate ; next place the right thumb on the 
head of the cock, support the fore-finger on the trig- 
ger, sustain at the same time, the cock in its descent 
till it touches the cap, the reaching of which will be 
felt and heard, and seize the handle of the piece with 
the right hand. 

At the word arms, carry the piece smartly to the 
shoulder and retake the position of shoulder arms. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 25 



FIRINGS. 

The firings are direct or oblique, and will be ex- 
ecuted as herein explained. 

THE DIRECT FIRE. 

The instructor will give the following commands : 

1. Fire by Squad. 2. Squad. 3. Ready. 4. Aim. 
5. Fire. 6. Load. 

These several commands will be executed as has 
been prescribed under the manual of arms. At the 
third, the men will take the positions which have 
been indicated, according to the rank in which each 
may find himself placed. After the sixth, they will 
load and shoulder arms. 

THE OBLIQUE FIRE. 

Oblique firing will be executed to the right and 
left, and by the same commands as the fire direct, 
with this single difference — the command aim will 
always be preceded by the caution right (or left) ob- 
lique, which will be given after the command ready. 

POvSITION OF THE RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE TO 
THE RIGHT. 

At the command ready, both ranks will execute 
what has been prescribed for the direct fire. 

At the cautionary command right oblique, both 
ranks will throw back the right shoulder and look 
steadily at the object at which they ought to fire ; in 
this position the rear rank will be ready to take aim 
through the same intervals as in the fire direct, though 
in an oblique direction. 



26 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

At the command aim, the front rank takes aim to 
the right without stirring the feet. The rear rank 
man will advance the left foot about six inches, to- 
wards the right toe of the man of the front rank in 
the same file, incline the upper part of the body for- 
ward by bending a little the left knee, and take aim 
to the right. 

At the command load, both ranks will resume the 
position which has been prescribed for the fire direct. 

POSITION OF THE RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE TO 
THE LEFT. 

At the command ready, both ranks will execute 
what has been prescribed for the fire direct. 

At the cautionary command left oblique, both ranks 
will throw back the left shoulder, and look steadily 
at the object on which they ought to fire ; in this 
position the men of the rear rank will be ready to 
take aim in the interval to the left of the men in 
front, and in an oblique direction. 

At the command aim, the front rank will take aim 
to the left without inclining the knee or stirring the 
feet. The rear rank men will advance the left foot 
about six inches towards the right heel of the front 
rank men of their files ; they will advance also the 
upper part of the body by bending a little the left 
knee, and take aim through the intervals to the left 
of their file-leaders. 

At the command load, both ranks will resume the 
position of the first time of load. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 27 



THE FIRE BY FILE. 

1. Fire by file. 2. Squad. 3. Beady. 4. Com- 
mence Firing. 

At the command ready, both ranks take the posi- 
tion prescribed in the direct fire. 

At the command commence firing, the right file will 
aim and fire, the two men together ; the one in the 
rear rank, in taking aim, will carry the right foot 
eight or nine inches to the right ; the next file aims 
at the instant the first has fired, and so on succes- 
sively to the left ; after the first fire, every man will 
load and fire without waiting for the others. 

TO ARREST THE FIRE. 

ROLL. 

At this command, the fire will cease, each man will 
half-cock, if his piece be cocked, load, or finish load- 
ing, if not already loaded, and shoulder arms. 



The instructor ought also carefully to observe whether, 
in half-cocking, the pieces have not been, through pre- 
cipitancy, cocked — a fault from which the most serious 
accidents might result. 

INSPECTION OF ARMS. 

The squad being at ordered arms, and having the 
bayonet in the scabbard, if the instructor wishes to 
cause an inspection of arms, he will command : 



28 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 



Inspection 0/— ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion, Face to the right once and a half 
on the left heel, carrying the right foot perpendicu- 
larly to the rear of the alignment, about six inches 
from, and at right angles with, the left foot; seize 
promptly the piece with the left hand a little above 
the middle band, incline the muzzle to the rear with- 
out displacing the heel of the butt, the rammer 
turned towards the body ; carry at the same time the 
right hand to the bayonet and seize it as has been 
prescribed infix bayonet. 

Second Motion. Draw the bayonet from the scab- 
bard, carry and fix it on the muzzle ; seize next the 
rammer, draw it as has been explained in loading it 
ten times, and let it glide to the bottom of the bore. 

Third Motion. Face promptly to the front, seize 
the piece with the right hand, and retake the posi- 
tion of ordered arms. 

The instructor will then inspect in succession the 
piece of each recruit, in passing along the front of 
the rank. Each, as the instructor reaches him, will 
raise smartly his piece with his right hand, seize it 
with the left between the tail-band and the lock- 
plate, the lock to the front, the left hand at the 
night of the chin, the piece opposite to the left eye ; 
the instructor will take it with the right hand at the 
handle, and, after inspecting it, will return it to the 
recruit, who will receive it back with the right hand 
and replace it in the position of ordered arms. 

"When the instructor shall have passed him, each 
recruit will retake the position prescribed at the com- 
mand inspection of arms, and return the rammer ; 
after which he will face to the front. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 29 



i^r—BAYONET. 

Take the position prescribed in the first motion of 
inspection of arms ; fix bayonet and face to the 
front. 

Bayonets fixed, if it it be the wish of the instruc- 
tor, after firing, to ascertain whether the pieces have 
been discharged, he will command : 

Spring— RAMMERS. 

Put the rammer in the barrel, as has been ex- 
plained above, and immediately face to the front. 

The instructor, for the purpose stated, can take the 
rammer by the small end, and spring it in the barrel, 
or cause each recruit to make the rammer ring in the 
barrel. 

Each recruit, after the instructor passes him, will 
return rammer and face to the front. 

TO STACK ARMS. 

The squad being in two ranks, at order arms, the 
instructor will comand : 

Stack— ARMS. 

At this command the front rank man of every even 
numbered file will pass his piece before him, seizing 
it with the left hand above the middle band and place 
the butt outside and near his left foot, the barrel 
turned to the front, the muzzle opposite to the right 
shoulder ; at the same time, the front rank man of 
every odd numbered file will pass his piece before 
him, seizing it with the left hand below the middle 
band, and hand it to the man next on the left ; the 
latter will receive it with the hand two inches above 



30 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

the middle band ; throw the butt about thirty-two 
inches to the front, opposite to his right shoulder, in- 
clining the muzzle towards the right shoulder, and 
lock the shanks of the two bayonets, the barrel re- 
maining to the rear and its shank above that of the 
first piece. The rear rank man of every even file 
projects his bayonet forward, the barrel to the right, 
and introduce it (using both hands) between the 
muzzle and under the shanks of the other two bayo- 
nets. He will then abandon the piece to his file- 
leader, who will receive it with the right hand under 
the middle band, bring the butt to the front, holding 
up his own piece and the stack with his left hand, 
and place the butt of this third piece between the 
feet of the man next on the right. The stack thus 
formed, the rear rank man of every odd file will pass 
his piece into his left hand, the barrel turned to the 
front and sloping the bayonet forward, rest it on the 
stack. 

To disperse, the instructor will command : 

Break Banks— MARGE.. 

TO RESUME ARMS. 

The squad on a signal or order to fall in, re-form in 
two ranks and the instructor will command : 

Take— ARMS. 

At the command take arms, the rear rank man of 
every odd file will withdraw his piece from the stack ; 
the front rank man of every even file will seize his 
own piece with the left hand, and that of the man on 
his right with the right hand ; the rear rank man of 
every even file will seize his piece with the right 
hand at the middle band, advancing for the purpose, 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 31 

the hollow of his right foot as far as the right heel of 
his file-leader ; these two men will raise up the stack 
to loosen the shanks ; the front rank man of every 
odd file receives his piece from the hand of the man 
next on the left ; and the four men will retake the 
position of the soldier at order arms. 

When organized companies stack arms, the ser- 
geant and also corporals, if in the rank of file closers, 
will rest their pieces against the stack nearest to 
them, respectively, after ranks are broken, and re- 
sume pieces on the signal to re-form ranks. 

FOR RELIEVING SENTINELS. 

Arms— PORT. 

Throw the piece diagonally across the body, the 
lock to the front, seize it smartly at the same instant 
with both hands, the right at the small, the left at 
the tail band, the thumbs pointing towards the muz- 
zle, the barrel sloping upwards and crossing opposite 
to the point of the left shoulder, the butt proportion- 
ally lowered ; the palm of the right hand above, that 
of the left under the piece, and the nails of both 
hands next to the body, to which the elbows will be 
closed. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 

First Motion. Bring the piece smartly to the left 
shoulder, placing the left hand under the butt. 

Second Motion. Drop the right hand smartly by 
the side. 

FOR DISMISSION. 

Recover — ARMS. 
Turn the piece quickly with the left hand, the bar- 



32 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

rel to the rear, seize it smartly with the right hand at 
the small; carry the left hand above the lock, the 
little finger touching the lock-plate, the lock as high 
and in front of the left shoulder, the piece perpen- 
dicular, and elbows close. 

This recover arms, is used for dismission at the 
close of drills, exercise, etc. The command is — 
Squad — Company — or the like — Bight Face. Recover 
— Arms. Break — Ranks. March. At the word 
march, each soldier strikes the butt of his piece 
smartly with his left hand, seizing it again above the 
lock, and break. 

When after some days of exercise in the manual 
of arms, the men become well established in their 
use, the instructor will terminate the lessons by 
marching the men some distance in one rank, and at 
a pace apart, in order to confirm them more and 
more in the mechanism of the direct and oblique 
steps. He will also teach them how to mark time, 
change step, step short and the side step. 

TO MARK TIME. 

The men marching in direct step, in common or 
quick time, the instructor will command : 

1. Mark Time. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, which will be given at 
the instant a foot is coming to the ground, the recruits 
will make a semblance of marching by advancing 
first one foot, and then the other, always bringing 
back the advanced foot and placing its heel by the 
side of the heel of the other. 

To resume the direct step, command : 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 33 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, which will be given as 
prescribed above, the recruits will retake the step of 
twenty-eight inches. 

1. Change Step. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, which will be given at 
the instant a foot is coming to the ground, the squad 
will bring up quickly the foot in the rear, to the side 
of that just come to the ground, and step off with 
the latter. 

1. Step Short. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, the foot advanced will 
finish its pace, and afterwards each recruit will step 
as far as the ball of his toe, and not further, until the 
words forward march, when he will resume the 
twenty-eight inch step. 

1. Side step to the right (or left.) 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, each recruit will glance 
his eyes to the right, and at the same time carry his 
right foot about ten inches to the right (or towards 
the left foot of his right hand man) and instantly 
bring up his left foot and so on, the whole with per- 
fect precision of time ; shoulders square to the front 
and each man halting on his own person, when he 
has closed on the fixed point, or on the man next to 
him. When the side step is used for the purpose of 
gaining ground to the right or left, at the command 
halt, each recruit will bring up the foot in the rear to 
the one in advance. 



34 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 



ALIGNMENTS. 

Six or nine men will be united in one rank, elbow 
to elbow, and numbered from right to left, in order 
to teach them the principles of alignment, (dressing 
on a line) the principle of the touch of the elbow in 
marching by the front, the quick and back steps ; the 
principles of the march by the flank, wheeling from 
a halt, wheeling in marching and the change of direc- 
tion to the side of the guide, (turning.) 

Each recruit, as designated by his number, will 
turn the head and eyes to the right, march in com- 
mon time two paces forward, shortening the last so 
as to find himself about six inches behind the new 
alignment, which he ought never to pass; he will 
next move up steadily by steps of two or three inches, 
the hams extended, to the side of the man next to 
him on the alignment so that, without deranging the 
head, the line of the eyes, or that of the shoulders, 
he may find himself in the exact line of his neighbor, 
whose elbow he will lightly touch, without opening 
out his own. 

The instructor, seeing the rank well aligned, will 
command : 

FRONT. 

At this, the recruits will turn eyes to the front and 
remain firm. 

Alignments to the left, will be executed on the 
same principles. 

"When the recruits shall have thus learned to align 
themselves man by man, correctly, and without grop- 
ing or jostling, the instructor will cause the entire 
rank to align itself at once by the command : 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 35 

Right (or left)— DRESS. 

At this, the rank, except the two men placed in 
advance as a basis of alignment, will move up in 
common time, and place themselves on the new line, 
according to the principles above prescribed. 

The instructor seeing nearly the whole of the rank 
aligned, will command : 

FRONT. 

Alignments to the rear will be executed on the 
same principles, the recruits stepping back a little 
beyond the line, and then dressing up by steps of 
two or three inches, the command is : 

Right (or left) Backward— DRESS. 

THE MARCH BY THE FRONT AND THE DIFFERENT STEPS. 

The instructor will place a well-instructed man on 
the right or left of the rank, according to the side on 
which he may wish the guide to be, and command : 

1. Squad— FORWARD. 2. Guide right (or left.) 
3. MARCH. 

At the command march, the rank will step off 
smartly with the left foot ; the guide will take care 
to march straight to the front, keeping his shoulders 
always in a square with that line. 

The instructor will cause the following rules to be 
observed : 

Touch lightly the elbow towards the guide, not to 
open out the left elbow nor the right arm. Yield to 
pressure coming from the side of the guide and resist 
that coming from the opposite side. Recover by in- 
sensible degrees the slight touch of the elbow, if lost. 



36 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

Maintain the head direct to the front, no matter on 
which side the guide may be. Perceiving himself 
before or behind the alignment, the man in fault will 
correct himself by shortening or lengthening the 
step, by degrees, almost insensible. 

The recruits will next be exercised in the oblique 
march. In the oblique, as in the direct march, the 
touch of the elbows will always be to the side of the 
guide ; they will also be taught to pass from common 
to quick time and the reverse ; but the oblique march 
in quick time should not be practiced until the re- 
cruits are well established in common time. 

The rank being in the direct march in common 
time, the instructor will command : 

1. Quick time. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, which may be given as 
either foot is coming to the ground, the rank will, 
without altering the length of the step, change the 
rate of march to one hundred and ten steps in a min- 
ute. 

To resume the direct step in common time. 

1. Common time. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, which will be given on 
either foot, as above, the rank will retake the step in 
common time. 

TO MARCH IN THE BACK STEP. 

To effect this the instructor will command : 

1. Squad, backward. 2. Guide left (or right.) 3. 
MARCH. 
At the command march, the rank will step off 
smartly, with the left foot to the rear, carrying it 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 37 

about fourteen inches, reckoning from heel to fc heel, 
and so on with the feet in succession, till the com- 
mand halt, which will always be preceded by the cau- 
tion squad. The men will halt at this command, and 
bring back the foot in front, and by the side of the 
other. 

The instructor will be watchful that the men do 
not lean on each other ; that they march straight to 
the rear, and that the erect position of the body and 
the piece be not deranged. 

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK. 

The rank being at a halt and correctly aligned, the 
instructor will give these commands : 

1. Squad, by the right (or left) flank. 2. Right (or 
left) FACE. 3. Forward. 4. MARCH. 

At the command face, the rank will face to the 
right (or left.) 

At the command march, it will step off smartly 
with the left foot, in the common step, both in length 
and time. 

The instructor will place a well-instructed soldier 
by the side of the recruit who is at the head of the 
rank, to regulate the step and to conduct him and it 
will be enjoined on this recruit to march always 
elbow to elbow, with the soldier. 

The instructor will cause to bo observed in the 
march, by the flank, the following rules : 

That the step be executed according to the principles 
'prescribed for the direct step: 

Because these principles, without which, men 
placed elbow to elbow in the same rank cannot pre- 



db SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

serve unity and harmony of movement, {ensemble) are 
of a more necessary observance in marching in file. 

That, at each step, the advancing heel of every follow- 
ing man he planted about six inches in advance of 
the opposite heel (yet on the ground) of the man im- 
mediately prece* 



In order that the rank, marching in file, may be 
neither lengthened nor contracted, so that, in facing 
to the front, each man may have his precise space. 

That (to avoid treading on the heels of the men who 
precede) the knees be not bent: 

Because, bending knees occasions botfc. a loss of 
cadence and distance. 

That the head of the man who immediately precedes, 
cover the heads of all who are in front : 

Because it is the most certain rule by which each 
man may maintain himself in the exact line of the 
file. 

To halt the squad and face it to the front. 

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 3. Front— FACE. 

At the second command, the rank will halt, and 
afterwards no man will budge, although he may have 
lost his distance. This prohibition is necessary, to 
habituate the men to a constant preservation of their 
distances. 

At the third command, each man will front by 
facing to the left, if marching by the right flank, and 
by a face to the right, if marching by the left flank. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 39 

TO CHANGE DIRECTION, MARCHING BY A FLANK. 

1. By file, left (or right.) 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, the leading man of the 
rank will change direction to the left, (or right) in 
describing a small arc of a circle, and then march 
straight forward ; each man, on coming up, will suc- 
cessively change direction on the same place as the 
first. 

The rank marching by the front, the instructor, to 
cause it to march by a flank, will command : 

1. Squad by the left (or right) flank. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, which will be given a 
little before either foot comes to the ground, the re- 
cruits will turn the body, plant the foot that is raised 
in the new direction and step off with the other foot 
without altering the cadence of the step. 

Flank marching will be executed first in common 
time and afterwards in quick time. 

WHEELINGS. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WHEELING. 

Wheelings are of two kinds: from halts, or on 
fixed pivots, and in march, or on moveable pivots. 

Wheeling on a fixed pivot takes place in passing 
a corps from the order in battle to the order in column, 
or from the latter to the former. 

Wheels in marching take place in changes of di- 
rection in column as often as this movement is exe- 
cuted to the side opposite to the guide. 

In wheels from a halt, (if a single rank) the pivot- 
man only turns in his place, without advancing or 
receding. 



40 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

In the wheels in marching, the pivot-man takes 
steps of full nine inches, (nine and one-third) to clear 
the wheeling point before the next subdivision * 
arrives on the same ground, which is necessary, in 
order that the succeeding subdivisions may not lose 
their distances by being delayed, as will be explained 
in School for the Company. 

In both cases, the man on the wheeling flank will 
always take the full pace of twenty-eight inches. 

The movement of turning to the right or left, will 
always take place only when the change of direction, 
in column, is to the side of the guide, and great 
care is necessary not to confound this movement with 
that of wheeling in marching. 

WHEELING FROM A HALT, OR ON A FIXED PIVOT, f 

The rank being at a halt, the instructor will place 
a well-instructed man on the wheeling flank to con- 
duct it, and then command : 

1. By squad, right wheel 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, the rank will step off 
with the left foot, turning at the same time the head 
a little to the left, the eyes fixed on the eyes of the 
men to their left ; the pivot-man will merely mark 

* The pivot flank, or, as it is sometimes called, the proper 
pivot, is that which, by wheeling up to, the subdivisions of 
the column are brought into line in regular order, and to 
the proper front. The other is termed the reverse flank. The 
flank of a subdivision to which a wheel is made, is, in reference 
to the particular wheel, called the pivot flank, although in 
reference to the column it be the reverse flank. 

j- Subdivision is herein used as a general term to signify any 
of those equal parts into which a line is broken in forming 
column, whether such parts be divisions (two companies each; 
companies, jjlatoons, or sections. 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 41 

time in gradually turning his body, in order to con- 
form himself to the movement of the marching flank. 
The man who conducts this flank will take steps of 
twenty-eight inches, and from the first step advance 
a little the left shoulder, cast his eyes from time to 
time along the rank, and feel constantly the elbow of 
the next man lightly, but never push him. 

The other men will each feel lightly the elbow of 
the next man towards the pivot, resist pressure com- 
ing from the opposite side, and conform himself to 
the marching flank — shortening his step according to 
his approximation to the pivot. 

The instructor will make the rank wheel round the 
circle once or twice before halting, in order to cause 
the principles to be better understood, and he will be 
watchful that the center does not break. 

He will cause the wheel to the left to be executed 
according to the same principles. 

When the instructor shall wish to arrest the wheel, 
he will give the following commands : 

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 

At the second command, the rank will halt, and 
no man stir. The instructor, going to the flank oppo- 
site the pivot, will place the two outer men of that 
flank in the direction he may wish to give to the rank 
taking care to leave between them and the pivot only 
the space necessary to contain the other men. He 
will then command: 

Left (or right)— DRESS. 

At this, the rank will place itself on the alignment 
of the two men established as the basis, in conformity 
with the principles prescribed. 



42 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 

The instructor will next command front, which will 
be executed as prescribed in the alignments. 

WHEELING IN MARCHING, OR ON A MOVABLE PIVOT. 

To cause the rank to change direction to the re- 
verse flank, (to the side opposite to the guide or pivot 
flank) the instructor will give the following com- 
mands : 

1. Eight (or left) wheel 2. MARCH. 

The first command will be given when the rank is 
yet four paces from the wheeling point. 

At the second command, the wheel will be exe- 
cuted in the same manner as from a halt, except that 
the touch of the elbow will remain towards the 
marching flank (or side of the guide) instead of the 
actual pivot ; that the pivot-man, instead of merely 
turning in his place, will conform himself to the move- 
ment of the marching flank, feel lightly the elbow of 
the next man, take steps of full nine inches, and thus 
gain ground forward in describing an arc of a small 
circle, to clear the point of the wheel. The middle 
of the rank will bend slightly to the rear. As soon 
as the movement shall commence, the man who con- 
ducts the marching flank will cast his eyes on the 
ground over which he will have to pass. 

The wheel being ended, the instructor will com- 
mand: 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH. 

The first command will be pronounced when four 
paces are yet required to complete the change of di- 
rection. 

At the command march, which will be given at the 
instant of completing the wheel, the man who con- 



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER. 43 

ducts the marching flank will direct himself straight 
forward ; the pivot-man and all the rank will retake 
the step of twenty-eight inches, and bring the head 
direct to the front. 

TURNING, OR CHANGE OF DIRECTION TO THE SIDE OF 
THE GUIDE. 

The change of direction to the side of the guide, 
in marching, will be executed as follows : The in- 
structor will command : 

1. Right (or left) turn. 2. MARCH. 

The first command will be given when the rank is 
yet four paces from the turning point. 

At the command march, to be pronounced at the 
instant the rank ought to turn, the guide will face to 
the left (or right) in marching, and move forward in 
the new direction without slackening or quickening 
the cadence, (rate of march) and without shortening 
or lengthening the step. The whole rank will 
promptly conform itself, without running, to the new 
direction; to effect which, each man will advance 
the shoulder opposite to the guide, take the quick 
step or time, to carry himself in the new direction, 
turn the head and eyes to the side of the guide, and 
retake the touch of the elbow on that side, in placing 
himself on the alignment of the guide, from whom 
he will take the step, and then assume the direct 
position of the head. Each man will thus arrive suc- 
cessively on the alignment of the guide. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 



MANNER OF FORMING COMPANY. 

The whole company being assembled on its ground, 
the sergeants, b}^ the command fall in, will cause the 
rank and file (corporals and privates) to form in one 
rank, faced to the right, and in the order of hight 
from right to left, the tallest man on the right, (now 
head of the rank,) the next tallest man immediately 
covering the first, and so on to the left or rear of the 
rank, in which position will be placed the shortest 
man. 

This being promptly effected by the sergeants, the 
first sergeant will command : 

Front— -FACE. 

At the command face, the company faces to the 
front and the second sergeant will place himself on 
the left of the rank, and the first sergeant will com- 
mand : 

1. In two ranks form company. 2. By the left flank. 
3. Ze/fc— FACE. 4. MARCH. 

At the third command, the whole rank will face to 



46 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

the left, except the guide and man on the left, who 
stand fast. 

At the command march, the men who have faced 
to the left will step off together; the second man, 
counting from the left, will place himself behind the 
man next to the guide and face to the front ; the two 
following men will, in like manner on closing up, 
form the next file, and all the other men will come 
successively to form files, two deep, to the right of 
those already formed. The distance between the 
ranks is thirteen inches, measured from the breasts of 
the rear rank men to the backs or knapsacks (if they 
be on) of the front rank men. 

The captain will now cause the company to be 
divided into two equal platoons, and each platoon 
into two equal sections. The platoon on the right is 
called the first platoon, and that on the left the second 
platoon. The sections are numbered from right to 
left, first, second, third, fourth. The files will be num- 
bered from right to left ; first the whole number and 
afterwards by twos. 

The officers and sergeants will now take their posts 
as follows : 

The captain in the front rank on the right of the 
company. 

The first lieutenant two paces in rear of the rear 
rank and equi-distant between the center of the sec- 
ond platoon and the second file from the left of the 
company. 

The second lieutenant opposite the center of the 
first platoon, and two paces in rear of the rear rank. 

The brevet second lieutenant opposite the center 
of the second platoon and two paces in rear of the 
rear rank. 

The first sergeant on the right of the rear rank, 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 47 

covering the captain; he is denominated covering 
sergeant or right guide of the company. 

The second sergeant, two paces in rear of the sec- 
ond file from the left of the company ; he is donomi- 
nated the left guide of the company. In the left com- 
pany of a battalion, this sergeant is on the left of the 
front rank, and is covered by a corporal in the rear 
rank ; he is designated as the closing sergeant and the 
corporal as the covering corporal. 

The third sergeant, two paces in rear of the second 
file from the left of the first platoon. 

The fourth sergeant, two paces in rear of the sec- • 
ond file from the right of the second platoon. 

The fifth sergeant or fourth corporal, two paces in 
rear of the rear rank, and equi-distant between the 
second lieutenant and the third sergeant. 

The officers and sergeants thus posted in rear of 
the company, constitute the rank of file-closers ; this 
rank is two paces in rear of the rear rank. 

The pioneer is posted in the line of file of closers 
on the right ; and the music in a line with the front 
rank, four paces on its right, the drum on the right of 
the fifer or bugler. 

Absent officers and sergeants will be replaced — 
officers by sergeants and sergeants by corporals, ac- 
cording to rank and the necessity of the case. 

TO PASS FROM TWO RANKS INTO ONE RANK. 

The instructor will command : 

1. In one rank form company. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command the left guide will face to the 
left. 

At the second command, the left guide will step 
off, and march in the prolongation of the front rank. 



48 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

The next file will step off at the same time with 
the guide ; the front rank man will turn to the left at 
the first step, follow the guide and be himself followed 
by the rear rank man of his file, each of whom will 
turn on the spot where their file-leader had turned. 
The second file, counting from the left, and succes- 
sively, all the other files, will march as has been pre- 
scribed for the first, the front rank man of each, im- 
mediately following the rear rank man of the file 
next on the left ; the captain will stand fast, and as 
the last man on the right turns with the rank, he 
will halt it and face it to the front. The file-closers 
extend themselves with the movement. 

IN COLUMN BY COMPANY — POST OF OFFICERS IN 
COLUMN. 

The captain two paces in front of the center of his 
company ; the first sergeant on the right of the front 
rank, and is the right guide of the company ; the 
second sergeant on the left of the front rank, and is 
the left guide of the company. 

IN COLUMN BY PLATOON. 

The captain commands the first platoon, the first 
lieutenant, the second platoon; each two paces in 
front of the center of his platoon; the first sergeant 
is the guide of the first platoon ; the second sergeant 
is the guide of the second platoon ; they will be on 
the left of the front rank of their respective platoons, 
if the column be right, in front ; and on the right, if 
the left be in front. 

In the route step, the chiefs of platoon take the 
place of the guides on the directing flank, and are 
covered by the latter in the rear rank. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 49 

IN COLUMN BY SECTION. 

This column takes place only in column of route, 
and then only when platoons have a front of ten or 
more files. The captain commands the first section ; 
the first lieutenant the third ; the second lieutenant 
the second and the brevet second lieutenant the fourth 
section, each taking post on the directing flank in the 
front rank of his section ; the two guides, who are thus 
displaced, will each fall back on the rear rank of his 
section and cover its chief; the remaining file-closers 
place themselves in the rear rank of their respective 
sections, all on the side of direction. 

In column, except in column by sections, the file 
closers, not otherwise provided for, are in their proper 
places behind the rear rank of their respective subdi- 
visions. 

In column, right in front, the left flank is the di- 
recting flank ; the reverse is the case in column, left 
in front. When marching in review, right in front, 
the right flank is the directing flank. 

In column, each chief of subdivision will always 
briskly repeat the commands march and halt the in- 
stant he hears them given. 

TO OPEN RANKS. 

The company being at shoulder arms, to cause the 
ranks to be opened, the instructor will give the inti- 
mation : prepare to open ranks. 

At this the left guide will place himself on the left 
of the rear rank. 

TO THE REAR, OPEN ORDER. 

The covering sergeant and the left guide will step 
off smartly to the rear, in the back step, four full 



50 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

paces from the front rank, and align themselves par- 
allel to the rear rank. 

MARCH. 

The front rank will stand fast ; the rear rank steps 
off in the back step, in common time without count- 
ing steps, places itself on the alignment marked out 
for it and is aligned by the right on the left guide, by 
the covering sergeant. The file-closers will step off 
at the same time with the rear rank and place them- 
selves two paces in the rear of that rank. 

The ranks being aligned, the instructor will com- 
mand: 

FRONT. 

ALIGNMENT IN OPEN RANKS. 

The ranks are first aligned, man by man, three 
men being placed two or three paces in advance of 
the right or left of each rank, to serve as a basis ; 
and the command given : 

By file right {or Je/*)— DRESS. 

At this, the men of each rank will move up suc- 
cessively on the alignment, each man being preceded 
by his neighbor in the same rank, towards the basis 
by two paces. 

Successive alignments having habituated the sol- 
diers to dress correctly, the instructor will cause the 
ranks to align themselves at once, forward and back- 
ward, sometimes in a direction parallel and sometimes 
in one oblique, to the original direction, giving, in 
each case, three men to serve as a basis of alignment 
to each rank. 

Before closing the ranks, the company will be ex- 
ercised in the manual of arms and the loading in ten 
times. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 51 



MANUAL OF ARMS. 

The ranks being open, the instructor will put him- 
self in a position to see the several ranks, and will 
command the manual of arms in the following order: 

1. Present Arms. 2. Shoulder Arms. 

3. Order Arms. 4. Shoulder Arms. 

5. Support Arms. 6. Carry Arms. 

7. Unfix Bayonet. 8. Shoulder Arms. 

9. Secure Arms. 10. Shoulder Arms. 

11. Fix Bayonet. 12. Shoulder Arms. 

13. Charge Bayonet. 14. Shoulder Arms. 

15. Trail Arms. 16. Shoulder Arms. 
17. Load in Ten Times. 

The instructor will take care that the position of 
the body, of the feet and of the piece, be always 
exact, and that the times be briskly executed. The 
ranks, during these exercises, will be superintended 
as before prescribed. 

TO CLOSE RANKS. 

1. Close order. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the rear rank will close to 
the front, and each man cover his file-leader. 

ALIGNMENTS IN CLOSED RANKS. 

In this case, the ranks are aligned at once, for- 
ward and backward, by company, in both parallel 
and oblique directions, by the right and left. 

MANUAL OF ARMS IN CLOSED RANKS. 

Manual of arms and loading in ten times, in closed 
ranks, will be commanded and executed as prescribed 
in squad drill. 



52 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 



LOAD IN FOUR TIMES AND AT WILL. 

Loading in four times and at will, will be command- 
ed and executed as prescribed in the squad drill. 

In the first time of loading in four times, and also, 
at will, the captain and covering sergeant will half- 
face to the right with the men, and face to the front 
when the man next to them, respectively, casts 
about. 

TO FIRE BY COMPANY. 

1. Fire by company. 2. Commence — FIRING-. 

At the first command, the captain will promptly 
place himself opposite to the center of his company, 
four paces in rear of the line of file-closers ; the cov- 
ering sergeant will retire to that line and place him- 
self opposite to his interval. This rule is general, for 
both the captain and covering sergeant, in all the differ- 
ent firings. 

At the second command, the captain will add : 

1. Company. 2. EEADY. 3. AIM. 4. FIRE. 
5. LOAD. 

At the command load, each man will bring back 
his piece, load and shoulder. The captain will imme- 
diately recommence the fire by the same commands, 
and thus continue it till the roll. 

The captain will sometimes cause aim to be taken 
to the right and left, simply observing to pronounce 
right (or left) oblique, after the command ready, and 
before that of aim. He will will also sometimes give 
the command recover arms, after that of aim, in order 
to habituate the men to composure of mind and at- 
tention to commands. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 53 



TO FIRE BY FILE. 

1. Fire by file. 2. Company. 3. Ready. 4. Com- 
mence— FIRING. 

The third and fourth command will be executed as 
prescribed in the squad drill, commenced by the right 
file of the company. 

The instructor will cause the firing to cease, 
whether by company (or file) by a roll of the drum ; 
and, at the instant the roll commences, the men will 
cease firing. If they have fired, they will reload and 
shoulder ; if they are in the position of ready, they 
will front, half-cock and shoulder ; if in the position 
of aim, they will, of themselves, recover arms, front, 
half-cock and shoulder. 

The roll will always be followed by a tap of the 
drum ; at this signal, the captain and covering ser- 
geant will promptly resume their places in line and 
rectify, if necessary, the alignment of the ranks. 

In actual firing, at the roll of the drum, the cap- 
tain and all the file-closers, will repeat, cease firing, 
and enforce the command. 

In the same case, above, where the command roll 
is substituted for the actual roll of the drum, the in- 
structor will add the command, to your places, as the 
signal for the return of the captain and covering ser- 
geant to their places in line, as soon as he sees arms 
shouldered. 

TO FIRE BY THE REAR RANK. 

1. Face by the rear rank. 2. Company. 3. About — 
FACE. 

At the first command, the captain will step out 
and place himself near to, and facing the right file of 
his company ; the covering sergeant and file-closers, 



54 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

will pass quickly through the captain's interval, and 
place themselves faced to the rear, the covering ser- 
geant a pace behind the captain, and the file closers 
two paces from the front rank, opposite to their 
places in line, each passing behind the covering ser- 
geant. 

At the third command, which will be given at the 
instant the last file closer shall have passed through 
the interval, the company will face about ; the cap- 
tain will place himself in his interval in the rear 
rank, now become the front, and the covering ser- 
geant will cover him in the front rank, now become 
the rear. 

Faced by the rear rank, the different firings will be 
executed in the manner already prescribed. The fire 
will commence on the left now the right flank. 

TO RESUME THE PROPER FRONT. 

1. Face by the front rank. 2. Company. 3. About 
FACE. 

At the first command, the captain, covering ser- 
geants and the file closers will conform themselves 
to what is prescribed in the face by the rear rank. 

At the third command, the company having faced 
about, the captain and covering sergeant will retake 
their places in line. 

REMARKS. 

In this lesson, the instructor will habituate the 
ranks to take aim horizontally. 

He will recommend to the captain to make a short 
pause between the commands aim and fire, to give 
the men time to adjust the sight well. 

The instructor will recommend to the soldiers, in 
the firings, the highest degree of composure or pres- 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 55 

ence of mind, which may be consistent with a due 
vivacity of execution ; he will neglect nothing that 
may contribute to this end. 

He will give to the men, as a general principle, to 
maintain, in the direct fire, the left heel in its place, 
in order that the alignment of the ranks and files 
may not be deranged ; and he will verify, by exami- 
nation, after each exercise in firing, the observance 
of this principle. 

The instructor will observe, in addition to these 
remarks, all those which have been prescribed in the 
squad drill. 

TO ADVANCE IX LINE OF BATTLE. 

1. Company— FORWARD. 

At this, a sergeant, previously designated, will 
move six paces in advance of the captain : the in- 
structor, from the position prescribed, will correctly 
align this sergeant on the prolongation of the direct- 
ing file. 

This advanced sergeant, who is to be charged with 
the direction, will the moment his position is assumed, 
take two points on the ground in the straight line 
which would pass between his own and the heels of 
the instructor. 

2. MARCH. 

At this, the company will step off with life. The 
directing sergeant will observe, with the greatest pre- 
cision, the length and cadence of the step, marching 
on the two points he has chosen ; he will take in 
succession, and always a little before arriving at the 
point nearest to him, new points in advance, exactly 
in the same line with the first two and at the distance 
of some fifteen or twenty paces from each other. The 



56 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

captain will march steadily in the trace of the direct- 
ing sergeant, keeping always six paces from him; 
the men march with the head and shoulders square 
to the front, touch lightly the elbow towards the cap- 
tain and resist pressure coming from the opposite 
side. 

The file-closers will march in their places, two 
paces behind the rear rank. 

If the men lose the step, the instructor will com- 
mand : 

To toe— STEP. 

At this, the men will cast an eye on the directing 
sergeant, retake the step from him and again direct 
eyes to the front. 

TO HALT THE COMPANY, ADVANCING IN LINE, AND 
TO ALIGN IT. 

1. Company. 2. HALT. 

At the second command, the company will halt ; 
the directing sergeant will remain in advance, unless 
ordered to return to the line of file-closers. 

The captain rectifies the alignment. 

ADVANCING IN LINE, TO OBLIQUE TO THE RIGHT OR 
LEFT. 

1. Right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the movement will be 
executed as prescribed in the squad drill ; the men 
preserve the touch of the elbow towards the captain 
who conforms his march to that of the directing ser- 
geant. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 57 

TO RESUME THE DIRECT MARCH. 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, pronounced at the instant 
a foot is coming to the ground, the company will take 
the direct march. 

The company is next instructed to mark time, by 
the command mark time — MARCH ; to resume the 
march, by the command forward — MARCH ; to 
march in quick time, by the command quick time — 
MARCH ; and to resume common time, by the com- 
mand common time — MARCH; the word march, 
being given as either foot is coming to the ground. 
The backward march will also be practised here. 

TO RETIRE IN LINE (MARCH IX RETREAT.) 

1. Company. 2. About — FACE. 

At the command face, the company will face to the 
rear. 

3. Company— FORWARD. 

At this, the covering sergeant moves up opposite 
to his interval, in the rank of file-closers, now lead- 
ing, and the captain will place himself in the rear 
rank, now become the front ; the directing sergeant 
places himself in front of the captain, six paces in 
advance of the rank of file-closers, and in the man- 
ner for the advance in line. 

4. MARCH. 

At this, the directing sergeant, the captain and the 
men, will conform themselves to what is prescribed 
in the advance in line. The company, retiring in line, 
executes all that is prescribed for advancing in line. 



58 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

TO HALT THE COMPANY RETIRING IN LINE, AND TO 
FACE IT TO THE FRONT. 

1. Company— HALT. 2. About— FACE. 

As soon as the company faces about, the captain, 
covering sergeant and the directing sergeant, resume 
their places in line. 

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK. 

1. Company by the right flank. 2. Eight — FACE. 
3. Company, forward. 4. MARCH. 

At the second command, the company will face to 
the right ; the covering sergeant will place himself at 
the head of the front rank, the captain having stepped 
out for the purpose, so far as to find himself by the 
the side of the sergeant, and on his left. 

At the command march, the company will step off 
smartly in common time ; the covering sergeant, at 
the head of the front rank, and the captain on his 
left, will direct their march straight forward. The 
men of the rear rank will march abreast with their 
respective front rank men, now on their left, heads 
direct to the front ; the file-closers will march oppo- 
site to their places in line of battle. 

The instructor will cause the march by the left 
flank to be executed by the same command, substi- 
tuting left for right. 

At the instant the company faces to the left, the 
left guide will place himself at the head of the front 
rank ; the captain will pass rapidly to the left, and 
place himself by the right side of this guide ; the 
covering sergeant will replace the captain in the front 
rank, the moment the latter quits it to go to the left. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 59 



TO CHANGE DIRECTION BY FILE. 

The company being faced to a flank, and either in 
march or at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to 
cause it to wheel by file, he will command : 

1. By file, left {or right) 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the first file will wheel ; 
if to the side of the front rank man, the latter will 
take care not to turn at once, but to describe a short 
arc of a circle, shortening a little the first three or 
four steps, in order to give time to the rear rank man 
to conform himself to the movement. 

TO HALT THE COMPANY, MARCHING BY A FLANK, 
AND FACE IT TO THE FRONT. 

1. Company. 2. HALT. Front— FACE. 

At the command face, the company faces to the 
left, if marching by the left flank ; and the captain, 
covering sergeant and the left guide, return to their 
places in line. 

MARCHING BY A FLANK, TO FORM ON RIGHT (OR 
LEFT) BY FILE INTO LINE. 

If the march be by the right flank, the instructor 
will command: 

1. On the right, by file into line. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the rear rank marks time ; 
the captain and covering sergeant turn to the right, 
march six paces forward, bej^ond the rank of file- 
closers and halt ; the captain places himself on the 
line to direct the alignment as the men of the front 



60 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

rank successively arrive on it ; the covering sergeant 
places himself behind the captain, at the distance of 
the rear rank ; the first man of the front rank con- 
tinues to march, passes behind the covering sergeant, 
turns to the right and places himself by the left side 
of the captain ; the second of the same rank, passes 
behind the first, turns to the right and places himself 
on the left of the first, and thus in succession, to 
the last man of this rank ; the rear rank man marks 
time until two men of the front rank are formed, 
when it executes the movement in like manner, each 
man covering his file leader. 

In marching by the flank, the move is executed by 
inverse means, substituting in the command the word 
left or right. The captain and the left guide return 
to their places in line as soon as the company is 
formed and aligned. 



MARCHING BY THE FLANK TO FORM BY COMPANY OR 
BY PLATOON INTO LINE. 

1. By company into line. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the covering sergeant con- 
tinues to march straight forward ; the men advance 
the right shoulder and march in quick time, diago- 
nally, into line with the covering sergeant, taking 
the step from him as they successively come in line, 
one after the other. The men of the rear rank will 
conform to the movement of their file leaders, but 
without endeavoring to arrive in line at the same 
time with the latter. The captain will superintend 
the execution of the movement; and when the com- 
pany is formed, he will command guide left, and place 
himself two paces in front of the center and take the 
step of the company. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 61 

1. By platoon into line. 2. MARCH. 

The movement will be executed by each platoon, 
according to the above principles ; the captain and first 
lieutenant, as their respective platoons are formed, 
will command guide left. In marching by the left 
flank, those movements will be executed by the same 
commands, and according to the same principles, the 
words, guide right, being substituted for guide left, 
the moment the formation is ended. 

MARCHING BY THE FRONT, TO MARCH BY A FLANK. 

1. Company by the right (or left) flank. 2. MARCH. 

The movement will be executed in the manner 
prescribed in squad drill. The company, marching 
by a flank, will be marched by the front, by the same 
commands and means. 

If, after facing to the right or left, in inarching, the 
company find itself faced by the rear rank, the cap- 
tain will place himself two paces behind the center 
of the front rank, now in the rear, the guides will 
pass to the rear rank, now leading, and the file clo- 
sers will march in front of this rank. 

MARCHING IN COLUMN BY PLATOON TO MARCH BY 
THE FLANK IN THE SAME DIRECTION. 

1. Column oy the right flank. 2. By file, left. 3. 
MARCH. 

At the second command, each chief of platoon 
and its guide, will pass rapidly to the right flank to 
conduct it. 

At the command march, each platoon will face to 
the right, in marching, wheel by file to the left, and 
then march straight forward ; the leading file of the 



OZ SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

second platoon will unite with the rear file of the 
first, the chief and guide of the second, a pace before 
the union, will pass through the interval to their pla- 
ces as file-closers. 

With the left in front, the movement will be exe- 
cuted by inverse means, substituting in command, 
left for right, and right for left. The captain, to con- 
duct the left flank, if a halt be not immediately com- 
manded, will replace the first lieutenant on the flank, 
and the covering sergeant will return to his place on 
the right flank, now the rear. 

TO BREAK FROM LINE INTO COLUMN BY PLATOON. 

The company being at a halt, the instructor will 
command: 



1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the chiefs of platoon will 
throw themselves two paces before the centers of 
their respective platoons, the lieutenant passing 
around the left of the company. They need not 
occupy themselves with dressing, one upon the other. 
The covering sergeant will replace the captain in the 
front rank. 

At the command march, the right front rank man 
of each platoon will face to the right, the covering 
sergeant standing fast ; the chief of each platoon will 
move quickly by the shortest line, a little beyond the 
point at which the marching flank will rest when the 
wheel shall be completed, face to the late rear, and 
place himself so that the line which he forms with 
the man on the right (who had faced) shall be per- 
pendicular to that occupied by the company in line of 
battle; each platoon will wheel according to the 
principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot, 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 63 

and when the man who conducts the marching flank 
shall approach near to the perpendicular, its chief 
will command: 

1. Platoon. 2. HALT. 

At the command halt, which will be given at the 
instant the man who conducts the marching flank 
shall have arrived at three paces from the perpendic- 
ular, the platoon will halt ; the covering sergeant will 
move to the point where the left of the first platoon 
is to rest, passing by the front rank ; the second ser- 
geant will place himself, in like manner, in respect to 
the second platoon. Each will take care to leave 
between himself and the man on the right of his 
platoon, a space equal to the front of the platoon ; 
the captain and first lieutenant will look to this, and 
each take care to align the sergeant between himself 
and the man of the platoon who had faced to the 
rig] it. 

The guide of each platoon being thus established 
on the perpendicular, each chief will place himself 
two paces outside of his guide, and command : 

3. Left (or right) dress— FRONT. 

The company will break, by platoon, to the left, 
according to the same principles, and by inverse 



means. 



TO MARCH IN COLUMN. 



The guide of the leading platoon will take two 
points on the ground in a straight line to the front, 
the instructor will then command : 



64 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

1. Column, forward. 2. Guide left 3. MARCH. 

At the command march, promptly repeated by the 
chiefs of platoon, the whole will step off together; 
the guide of the second platoon will march exactly 
in the tread of the leading one, preserving between 
the latter and himself a distance precisely equal to 
the front of his platoon. 

The men will each feel lightly the elbow of his 
neighbor towards the guide, and conform himself in 
marching, to the principles prescribed in the squad 
drill. The man next to the guide, in each platoon 
will take care never to pass him, and also to march 
always about six inches from him. 

A column, left in front, will be put in march ac- 
cording to the same principles, substituting in the 
commands, guide right, for guide left. 

TO CHANGE DIRECTION. 

The column being in march, right in front, if it be 
the wish of the instructor to change direction to the 
left, he will give the order to the chief of the first 
platoon and immediately go himself or send a marker 
to the point at which the change of direction is to be 
made; the instructor, or marker, will place himself 
on the direction of the guides, so as to present the 
breast to that flank of the column. 

The leading guide will direct his march on that 
person, so that, in passing, his left arm may just 
graze his breast. When the leading guide shall have 
approached near to the marker, the chief of his pla- 
toon will command : 

1. Left turn. 2. MARCH. 
The first command will be given when the platoon 
is at the distance of four paces from the marker. 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 65 

At the command march, which will be pronounced 
at the instant the guide shall have arrived opposite 
to the marker, the guide and platoon will turn to the 
left, conforming themselves to what is prescribed in 
the squad drill. 

The guide of the first platoon having turned, will 
take points on the ground in the new direction, to 
assure his march. 

The second platoon will continue to march straight 
forward till up with the marker, when it will turn by 
the same commands and according to the same prin- 
ciples which governed the first platoon. 

When the instructor shall wish to cause a change 
of direction to the side opposite to the guide, he will 
give the order to the chief of the first platoon, and 
proceed to mark the point of change as just ex- 
plained. 

The guide of the first platoon will direct his march 
on the marker, and when he arrives at four paces 
from the wheeling point, the chief will command : 

1. Eight wheel 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, which will be pronounced 
at the instant the guide is opposite to the marker, or 
wheeling point, the platoon will wheel to the right, 
in conformity with the principles prescribed in squad 
drill 

The wheel being ended, the chief of platoon will 
command : 

3. Forward. 4. MARCH. 

These commands will be pronounced and executed 
as prescribed in squad drill 

The second platoon will continue to march straight 
forward, its guide directing himself on the marker ; 
3 



66 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

it will wheel to the right at the same place by the 
same commands and the same means, and then re- 
sume the direct march as in the case of the first 
platoon. 

Changes of direction in a column, left in front, will 
be executed according to the same principles, and by 
inverse means. 

TO HALT THE COLUMN. 

1. Column. 2. HALT. 

At the command halt, promptly repeated by the 
chiefs of platoon, the column will halt and guides 
stand fast. 

The instructor having halted the column, right (or 
left) in front, and wishing to form it to the left (or 
right) into line of battle, he will throw himself to 
platoon distance in front of the leading guide, face to 
him, and rectify, if necessary, the position of the 
guide beyond; this being executed, he will com- 
mand: 

Left (or right)— DRESS. 

At this, which will not be repeated by the chiefs 
of platoon, each of them will throw himself two 
paces outside of his guide, and direct the alignment 
of the platoon perpendicularly to the direction of the 
column. 

Each chief having aligned his platoon, will com- 
mand front, and return quickly to his place in col- 
umn. 

TO WHEEL INTO LINE. 

1. Left into line, wheel. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, briskly repeated by the 
chiefs of platoon, the front rank man on the left of 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 67 

each platoon will face to the left and place his breast 
lightly against the arm of the guide by his side, who 
stands fast ; the platoons will wheel to the left (or 
right) on the principle of wheels from a halt. Each 
chief will turn to his platoon to observe its move- 
ment, and when the marching flank has approached 
near the line of battle he will command : 

1. Platoon. 2. HALT. 

The command halt, will be given when the march- 
ing flank of the platoon is three paces from the line 
of battle. 

The chief of the second platoon, having halted it, 
will return to his place as a file-closer. 

The captain will then go to the point where the 
right of the company will rest in line, and command : 

Bight— DRESS. 

At this command, the two platoons will dress up 
on the alignment. 

The company being aligned, the captain will com- 
mand: 

1. Front 2. Guides— POSTS. 

At this, the covering sergeant will cover the cap- 
tain, and the left guide will return to his place as a 
file-closer, each moving quickly. 

If the left be in front, right into line ivheel, will be 
executed by the same principles and by inverse 
means. 

The captain, having halted the first platoon, will 
throw himself to the point at which the left of the 
company will rest in line of battle, he will give the 
command left dress ; seeing both platoons aligned, he 
will add. front; and at the command guides — -posts, 



68 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

given by the instructor, the captain will promptly shift 
to the right of the company. 

TO DIMINISH AND INCREASE FRONT OF COLUMN IN 
MARCHINGS- BY PLATOON. 

Diminishing. 

The company being in march in the cadenced step, 
common time and supposed to make part of a column, 
right in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause 
it to break by platoon, he will give the order to the 
captain, who will command: 1. Break into platoons, 
and immediately place himself before the center of 
the first platoon. 

At the command break into platoons, the first lieu- 
tenant will pass quickly around the left to the center 
of his platoon and give the caution, mark time. 

The captain will then command : 

2. MARCH. 

The first platoon will continue to march straight 
forward; the covering sergeant will throw himself 
on the left flank of this platoon (passing by the front 
rank) as soon as the flank shall be disengaged. 

At the command march, given by the captain, the 
second platoon will begin to mark time ; its chief will 
immediately add : 

1. Eight oblique. 2. MARCH. 

The last command will be given so that this platoon 
may commence obliquing the instant the rear rank 
of the first platoon shall have passed. 

The guide of the second platoon being near the di- 
rection of the guide of the first, the chief of the 
second will command forward, and add march, the 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 69 

instant that the guide of his platoon shall cover the 
guide of the first. 

In a column, left in front, the company will break 
into platoons by inverse means, applying to the first 
platoon all that has been prescribed for the second, 
and reciprocally. 

In this case, the left guide of the company will 
shift to the right flank of the second platoon, and 
the covering sergeant will remain on the right of the 
first. 

INCREASING. 

The column, by platoon, being in march, right in 
front, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to 
form company, he will give the order to the captain, 
who will command : 

1. Form, 2. COMPANY. 

Having given that command, the captain, as chief 
of the first platoon, will immediately add: 

1. First platoon. 2. Right— OBLIQUE. 

The chief of the second platoon will caution it to 
march straight forward. 

The captain will then command : 

3. MARCH. 

At this, the first platoon will oblique to the right 
to unmask the second; the covering sergeant will 
shift to the right flank, passing by the the front rank. 

When the first platoon shall have nearly unmasked 
the second, the captain will command : 



70 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

1. Mark— TIME. 

At the instant the unmasking shall be complete, 
he will add : 

2. MARCH. 

The first platoon will then cease to oblique, and 
mark time. 

In the meantime the second platoon will have con- 
tinued to march straight forward, and when it shall 
be nearly up with the first, the captain will com- 
mand, forward; and at the instant the two platoons 
shall unite, add, march; the first platoon will then 
cease to mark time. 

In a column, left in front, the same movement will 
be executed by inverse means, applying to the second 
platoon what has been prescribed for the first, and 
reciprocally. 

TO DIMINISH AND INCREASE FRONT OF COLUMN IN 
MARCHING BY FILE AND BY FILES. 

Diminishing oy file. 

The company being in march and supposed to con- 
stitute part of a column, right in front, the instructor 
will give the order to the captain, who will com- 
mand : 

1. One file from left to rear. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the first file on the left 
will mark time, and as soon as the rear rank of the 
company has passed the men of that file respectively, 
the rear rank man of the particular file will advance 
a little the outer shoulder, taking special care not to 
lose his distance, and place himself behind the sec- 
ond file from the left; the front rank man will, in 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 71 

like manner, place himself behind the first file, and 
thus continue the march. 

To cause another file to break off, the same com- 
mand will be given ; when the file already broken off 
will move the space of one file to the right, and make 
room between itself and the rear rank of the compa- 
ny for the file last ordered to the rear. 

INCREASING BY FILE. 

To cause files, broken off, to return into line, the 
captain will command : 

1. One file into line. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the first file will return 
quickly into line, and the remaining files incline the 
space of one file to the left. 

DIMINISHING BY FILES. 

If several files are to break off at the same time, 
the files named, mark time, each rank will advance a 
little the outer shoulder, as it shall be cleared by the 
rear rank of the company, oblique in rank and place 
itself behind one of the two nearest files, the rear 
rank man (the first cleared) behind the second file, 
and the front rank behind the first file in the positions 
which each would have occupied, if the movement 
had been made file by file. 

INCREASING BY FILES. 

To cause several files broken off to be brought into 
line, at once, the captain will command : 



12 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 



1. Files into line. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the files designated will 
advance the inner shoulder, move up and form on the 
flank of the company by the shortest lines. 

As often as a file or files shall break off to the rear, 
the guide on that flank will gradually close on the 
nearest front rank man remaining in line, and so will 
he open out to make room for a file or files ordered 
into line. 

This will only be broken off from the side of di- 
rection, in order that the whole company may easily 
pass from the front to the flank march. 

TO MARCH IN COLUMN OF ROUTE AND TO EXECUTE 
THE MOVEMENTS INCIDENT THERETO. 

The length of the route-step will be twenty-eight 
inches, and at the rate of ninety in a minute. 

The company being at a halt, and supposed to con- 
stitute a subdivision of a column, when the instructor 
shall wish to cause it to march in the route-step, he 
will command : 

1. Column, forward. 2. Guide, left {or right.) 3. 
Route-step. 4. MAECH. 

At the command march, repeated by the captain, 
the two ranks will step off together ; the rear rank, 
will take, in marching, by shortening a few steps, a 
distance of one pace (twenty-eight inches) from the 
rank immediately preceding. The men. without fur- 
ther command, will immediately be permitted to car- 
ry their arms at will. They will no longer be re- 
quired to march in the cadenced pace, or with the 
same foot, or to remain silent. The files will march 
at ease ; but care will be taken to prevent the ranks 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 73 

from intermixing, the front rank from getting in ad- 
vance of the guide, and the other ranks or rank from 
opening to too great a distance. 

The company marching in the route-step, the in- 
structor will cause it to change direction to the side 
of the guide, and to the reverse flank, which will 
be executed without formal commands, on a sim- 
ple caution from the captain ; the center rank will 
successively come up to change direction on the 
same ground on which the front rank had changed ; 
each rank will conform itself, although in the route- 
step, to the principles which have been prescribed for 
the change in closed ranks, with this difference only : 
that the pivot-man, on the reverse flank, will take 
steps of fourteen, instead of nine inches, in order to 
clear the wheeling point. 

To pass to closed ranks and the cadence step, the 
instructor will command : 

1. Shoulder amis. 2. Close order. 3. MARCH. 

At the command march, the rear rank will regain, 
by lengthening a few steps, the habitual distance, 
and the whole will resume the cadenced pace. 

To resume the route-step, the instructor will com- 
mand: 

1. Route-step. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the company will resume 
the route-march as above prescribed. 

To march by flank, in the same direction, the in- 
structor will cause the arms to be shouldered and 
supported, and the ranks to be closed, and then com- 
mand: 



74 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

1. Company by the right (or left) forward. 2. By file, 
left (or right.) 3. MARCH. 

At the command march, the company will face in 
marching, and wheel, by file, in the direction indica- 
ted. If any files are broken off to the rear, they 
will regain their places by wheeling, and follow the 
movement of the company. 

Marching in the route-step, to diminish and increase 
front by platoon, the same command and means are 
observed as if the march was in the cadenced step, 
with this single difference : that in the platoon which 
obliques, each man will half-face to the right or left, 
and thus march diagonally, till the platoon covers or 
unmasks the other platoon. 

To diminish front by section, the captain will cause 
arms to be shouldered, ranks to be closed, and then 
command : 

1. Break into sections. 2. MARCH. 

The movements will be executed according to the 
principles indicated for the same movements by pla- 
toon in close order. As soon as the sections are 
formed, the route-step will be resumed. The right 
sections of platoons will be commanded by the cap- 
tain and first lieutenant, respectively ; the left section 
by the two next subalterns in rank, or, in their ab- 
sence, by sergeants. Fronts may be diminished by 
section, if the platoon have a front of ten or more 
files — not otherwise. 

"When the instructor shall wish to increase front of 
column by section, he will give the order to the cap- 
tain, who will turn as usual, to the company, cause 
arms to be shouldered, ranks to be closed, and then 
command : 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 75 

1. Form platoons. 2. MARCH. 

As soon as the platoons are formed, the route-step 
will be resumed. 

When the company, marching in the route-step, 
halts, the rear rank will close up to the habitual dis- 
tance at the command halt, and the whole will shoul- 
der arms. 

COUNTERMARCH. 

The company being at a halt, and supposed to con- 
stitute part of a column, right in front, when the in- 
structor shall wish to cause it to countermarch, he 
will command: 

1. Countermarch. 2. Company, by the right flank. 
3. Right— ¥ AGE. 4. By file, left. 5. MARCH. 

At the third command, the company will face to 
the right, the two guides to the right about; the 
captain will go to the right of his company, cause 
two files to break to the rear, and then place himself 
by the side of the front rank man on the right, to 
conduct him. 

At the command march, both guides will stand 
fast ; the company will step off smartly ; the first file, 
conducted by the captain, will wheel around the right 
guide, and direct its march along the front rank so as 
to arrive behind, and two paces from the left guide ; 
each file will come in succession to wheel on the 
same ground around the right guide ; the leading file 
having arrived at a point opposite to the left guide, 
the captain will command : 



?6 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. Front— FACE. 4. 
Bight— -DRESS, 

The first command will be given at four paces 
from the point where the leading file is to rest. 

At the second, the company will halt. 

At the third, it will face to the front. 

At the fourth command, the company will dress 
by the right ; the captain will step two paces outside 
of the left guide, now on the right, and direct the 
alignment, so that the front rank may be inclosed 
between the two guides ; the company being aligned 
he will command front, and place himself before the 
center of the company, as if in column ; the guides, 
passing along the front rank, will shift to their pro- 
per places, on the right and left of that rank. 

In a column, by platoon, the countermarch will be 
executed by the same commands, and according to 
the same principles; the guide of each platoon will 
face about, and its chief will place himself by the 
side of the file on the right to conduct it. 

In a column, left in front, the countermarch will 
be executed by inverse commands and means, but 
according to the same principles. Thus, the move- 
ment will be made by the right flank of subdivisions, 
if the right be in front, and by the left flank, if the 
left be in front ; in both cases, the subdivisions will 
wheel by file to the side of the front rank. 

MARCHING IN COLUMN, BY PLATOON, TO FORM ON TftE 
RIGHT (OR LEFT) IN LINE OF BATTLE. 

The column by platoon, right in front, being in 
march, the instructor, wishing to form it on the right 
into line of battle, will command : 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 77 

1. On the right, into line. 2. Guide — EIGHT. 

At the second command, the guide of each platoon 
will shift quickly to its right flank, and the men will 
touch elbows to the right, the column continuing to 
march straight forward. 

The instructor having given the second command, 
will throw himself to the point at which the right of 
the company ought to rest in line, and place himself 
facing the point of direction to the left which he will 
choose. 

The line of battle ought so to be chosen that the 
guide of each platoon, may have at least nine paces 
to take to come upon the line. 

The head of the column being nearly opposite to 
the marker, the chief of the first platoon will com- 
mand: 

1. i^T**— TURK 

And when exactly opposite to that point he will 
add: 

2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the first platoon will turn 
to the right in conformity with the principles pre- 
scribed in the squad drill Its guide will so direct 
his march as to bring the front rank man next on 
his left, opposite to the marker ; the chief of the 
platoon will march before its center ; and when its 
guide shall be near the line of battle, he will com- 
mand: 

1. Platoon. 2. HALT. 

At the second command, which will be given at 
the instant the right of the platoon shall arrive at the 
distance of three paces from the line of battle, oppo- 



78 SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. 

site to one of the three files of his platoon, he will 
face to the marker, who will align him on the point 
of direction to the left. The chief of platoon having 
at the same time gone to the point where the right 
of the company is to rest, will, as soon as he sees all 
the files of the platoon in line, command : 

Bight— DBE88. 

The second platoon will continue to march straight 
forward, until its guide shall arrive opposite to the 
left file of the first ; it will then turn to the right at 
the command of its chief, and march towards the line 
of battle, its guide directing himself on the left file of 
the first platoon. 

The guide having arrived at the distance of three 
paces from the line of battle, this platoon will be 
halted, as prescribed for the first ; at the instant it 
halts, its guide will throw himself on the line of bat- 
tle, opposite to one of the thrt 3 left files of his pla- 
toon, and will be assured in Ins position by the in- 
structor. 

The chief of the second platoon, seeing all its files 
in line, and its guide established on the direction, will 
command : 

Eight— DEESS. 

Having given this command, he will return to his 
place as a file-closer, passing around the left; the 
second platoon will dress up on the alignment of the 
first, and, when established, the captain will com- 
mand: 

FRONT. 

The movement ended, the instructor will com- 
mand: 



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY. T 9 

Guides— POSTS. 

At this, the two guides will return to their places 
in line of battle. 

A column, by platoon, left in front, will form on 
the left into line of battle, according to the same 
principles, and, by inverse means, applying to the 
second platoon what is prescribed for the first, and 
reciprocally. The chief of the second platoon hav- 
ing aligned it, from the left, will retire to his place as 
a file-closer. The captain having halted the first 
platoon three paces behind the line of battle, will go 
to the same point to align this platoon, and then 
command : 

FRONT. 

At the command guides — posts, given by the in- 
structor, the captain w r ill shift to his proper flank, and 
the guides take their places in the line of battle. 

The instructor will sometimes cause arms to be 
supported, marching by the flank, and sometimes to 
be shifted to the right shoulder, marching by the 
front. When arms are shifted to the right shoulder, 
ranks will always open out from three to four inches ; 
thus at the command : 

To right shoulder, shift — ARMS, 

which will be given when in march. The rear rank 
will shorten the first step in order to open out that 
number of inches; and at the command, shoulder 
arms, the same rank will lengthen the first step the 
same number of inches, in order to close up again to 
the habitual distance. 

As often as a company, marching otherwise than 
at carried arms, halts, it will carry arms at the com- 
mand halt. This rule is general. 



MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 



The sergeants, like the rank and file, will always 
present themselves under arms with bayonets fixed. 

All sergeants, including the sergeant-major and the 
quarter-master-sergeant, also corporals of the color- 
guard, and all corporals not in the ranks and files, 
will carry, and handle their arms, as herein prescribed 
for sergeants. 

Sergeants, in the manual of arms, will observe in 
all the times (or pauses) the cadence prescribed for 
the rank and file. In the loadings and firings, they 
will remain at the shoulder, or support arms, accord- 
ing to the order which they may receive. 

POSITION OF SHOULDERED ARMS. 

The piece within the right arm, the barrel to the 
rear, erect and resting against the hollow of the 
shoulder; the right arm nearly straight, the right 
hand embracing the cock and guard, and the left arm 
hanging by the side. 



MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 81 

Present— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. With the right hand bring the piece 
erect, opposite to the center of the body, the rammer 
to the front ; at the same time seize the piece with 
the left hand above the lock, the little finger against 
the lock-plate, the thumb extended along the barrel 
and on the stock, the forearm resting on the body, 
without constraint, and the hand at the hight of the 
elbow. 

Second Motion. Correct the position of the right 
hand, so as to bring it under and against the guard, 
as in the case of the men. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Slip the left hand, on the piece, to 
the hight of the shoulder, and with this hand bring 
the piece erect against the right shoulder ; embrace, 
with the right hand, the cock and guard, the right 
arm nearly straight. 

Second Motion. Drop the left hand smartly by the 
side. 

Order— ARMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Bring the left hand promptly to the 
middle band; detach the piece a little from the 
shoulder with the right hand ; quit the hold of the 
right hand : lower the piece with the left, seizing it 
again with the right above the lower band, the thumb 
on the barrel, the four fingers extended on the stock, 
the piece erect, the butt about three inches from the 



82 MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 

ground, the toe (or beak) of the butt over its place, 
and drop the left hand by the side. 

Second Motion. Let the piece slip through the 
right hand, opening a little the thumb and fingers, so 
that the butt may come to the ground, without shock, 
its toe in a line with, and against the toe of the right 
foot. 

Shoulder— ABMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. With the right hand, raise the piece 
perpendicularly, the hand at the hight of the right 
breast, opposite to the shoulder, but further out, and 
about two inches from the body, on which the right 
elbow will rest ; seize the piece with the left hand 
under the right ; drop the right hand, and with it, 
embrace the cock and guard, supporting the piece 
against the right shoulder, the right arm nearly 
straight. 

Second Motion. Let the left hand fall smartly by 
the side. 

Support — ARMS. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. With the right hand, bring the 
piece erect between the eyes, the rammer to the 
front ; seize the piece with the left hand at the lower 
band, raise this hand to the hight of the chin, and 
grasp the piece at the same time about four inches 
below the lock with the right hand. 

Second Motion. With the right hand turn the 
piece, the barrel to the front, support it against the 
left shoulder and bring the left forearm between the 
cock and right hand, horizontally across the body, 
the cock resting on the left forearm, and the left hand 
on the right breast. 



MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 83 

Third Motion. Drop smartly the right hand by 
the side. 

Shoulder— AnUS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Seize the piece with the right hand 
under and against the left forearm. 

Second Motion. Bring the piece erect, with the 
right hand, against the right shoulder, the rammer to 
the front ; seize it with the left hand, at the hight of 
the shoulder ; correct the position of the right hand 
at the same time so as to embrace the cock and guard, 
the right arm nearly straight. 

Third Motion. Drop smartly the left hand by the 
side. 

Unfix— .BAYONET. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Bring the left hand promptly to 
the middle band, detach a little the piece from the 
shoulder, with the right hand. 

Second Motion. Lower the piece with the left 
hand, seize it with the right above the lower band ; 
rest the butt on the ground, letting the piece slip 
through the left hand ; bring the right hand immedi- 
ately to the bayonet turning the ketch. 

Third Motion. Wrest off the bayonet, and return 
it to the scabbard ; next, seize the piece with the 
right hand a little above the lower band ; drop the 
left hand at the same time by the side, and take the 
position of the soldier at ordered ovrms. 

Shoulder— AUUS. 
(Same as from Ordered Arms.) 



84 MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 

Fix— BAYONET. 
One time and three motions. 

First and Second Motions. As those of unfix bay- 
onet, except, that at the end of the second motion 
the right hand will be brought to seize the bayonet 
by the socket and shank, so that the socket may ex- 
tend about an inch above the heel of the hand. 

Third Motion. Draw the bayonet from the scab- 
bard with the right hand, carry and fix it on the 
muzzle ; next seize the piece with the right hand 
above the lower band, and drop smartly the left hand 
by the side. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
(Same as from Ordered Arms.) 

FOR CORPORALS. 

To pass from the shoulder as private, to the shoul- 
der as sergeant. 

As sergeant, shoulder — ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. "With the right hand, seize the piece 
at the handle, turn it, the lock to the front, as in the 
first motion of present arms, in infantry. 

Second Motion. Carry the piece with the right 
hand, erect against the right shoulder, the rammer to 
the front, the right arm nearly straight, the right 
hand embracing the cock and guard ; seize the piece 
with the left hand, at the hight of the shoulder. 

Third Motion. Drop the left hand smartly by the 
side. 



MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 85 

FOE CORPORALS OF THE COLOR-GUARD, (OR SER- 
GEANTS.) 

Qiarge— BAYONET. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece with the right hand 
in half-facing to the right on the left heel, and bring 
the hollow of the right foot opposite to, and three 
inches from the left heel. 

Second Motion. Drop the piece forward into the 
left hand, which will seize it a little above the lower 
band, the barrel up, the left elbow supported against 
the body; with the right hand, seize the handle 
below the guard, this hand supported against the hip, 
the point of the bayonet at the hight of the eye. 

Should^— ARMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. In facing to the front, raise the 
piece with the left hand, bring it erect against the 
right shoulder, the rammer to the front; with the 
right hand, at the same time, embrace the cock and 
guard. 

Second Motion. Quit hold with the left hand, and 
drop this hand by the side ; lengthen at the same 
time the right arm. 

FOR CORPORALS RETURNING TO THE RANKS. 

As soldier, shoulder — ARMS. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Detach the piece from the shoulder, 
bring it erect between the eyes, seize it with the left 
hand at the hight of the neck ; grasp with the right 



86 MANUAL OF ARMS FOR SERGEANTS. 

hand the handle, this hand at the hight of the elbow, 
the rammer to the front. 

Second Motion. Raise the piece with the right 
hand, the thumb extended on the counter-plate ; turn 
the barrel to the front ; support the piece against the 
left shoulder ; at the same time drop the left hand, 
and place it under the butt. 

Third Motion. Drop the right hand smartly by 
the side. 

FOR RELIEVING SENTINELS. 

Arms— PORT. 

One time and one motion. 

Throw the piece diagonally across the body, the 
lock to the front, seize it smartly at the same instant 
with both hands, the right at the handle, the left at 
the tail-band, the two thumbs pointing towards the 
muzzle, the barrel sloping upwards and crossing op- 
posite to the point of the left shoulder, the butt pro- 
portionally lowered. The palm of the right will be 
above, and that of the left under the piece, the nails 
of both hands next to the body, to which the elbows 
will be closed. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Bring the piece smartly to the left 
shoulder, placing the left hand under the butt. 

Second Motion. Drop the right hand smartly by 
the side. 



Manual of the Sword or Saber, for Officers. 



POSITION OF THE SWORD OR SABER, UNDER ARMS. 

The carry. The gripe in the right hand, which 
will be supported against the right hip, the back of 
the blade against the shoulder. 

TO SALUTE WITH THE SWORD OR SABER. 
Three times (or pauses.) 

One. At the distance of six paces from the person 
to be saluted, raise the sword or saber perpendicu- 
larly, the point up, the flat of the blade opposite to 
the right eye, the guard at the hight of the shoulder, 
the elbow supported on the body. 

Two. Drop the point of the sword or saber by 
extending the arm, so that the right hand may be 
brought to the side of the right thigh, and remain in 
that position until the person to whom the salute is 
rendered shall be passed, or shall have passed, six 
paces. 

Three. Raise the sword or saber smartly, and re- 
sume the position first prescribed. 






RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



POSITION OF THE SOLDIER. 

(Same as in Infantry.) 

FACINGS. 

(Same as in Infantry.) 

PRINCIPALS OF THE DIRECT STEP. 

(Same as in Infantry.) As soon as the recruit 
has acquired steadiness, become established in the 
principles of shouldered arms, and in the mechan- 
ism, length and swiftness of the step in common 
time, he will be practised only in quick time, double 
quick and the run. The principles of the step in 
quick time are the same as for common time, but 
its swiftness is at the rate of one hundred and ten 
steps per minute. 

The instructor wishing the squad to march in quick 
time will command : 

1. Squad, forward. 2. MARCH. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 89 



PRINCIPLES OF THE DOUBLE QUICK STEP. 

At the first command, the recruit will raise his 
hands to a level with his hips, the hands closed, the 
nails towards the body, the elbows to the rear. 

At the second command, he will raise to the front 
his left leg bent, in order to give to the knee the 
greatest elevation, the part of the leg between the 
knee and instep vertical, the toe depressed ; he will 
then replace his foot in its former position ; with the 
right leg he will execute what has just been pre- 
scribed for the left, and the alternate movements of 
the legs will be continued until the command : 

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 

At the second command, the recruit will bring the 
foot which is raised by the side of the others, and 
dropping at the same time his hands by his side, will 
resume the position of the soldier without arms. 

The cadence will be indicated by the commands 
one and two. given alternately at the same instant 
each foot should be brought to the ground — com- 
mencing in common time and gradually augmented. 

The recruit being established in the principles of 
this step, the instructor will command : 

1. Squad, forward. 2. Double Quick. 3. MARCH. 

At the first command, the recruit will throw the 
weight of his body on the right leg. 

At the second command, he will place his arms as 
indicated in double quick step. 

At the third command, he will carry forward the 
left foot, the leg slightly bent, the knee somewhat 
raised — will plant his left foot, the toe first, thirty- 
three inches from the right, and with the right foot 



90 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

will then execute what has just been prescribed for 
the left. In this movement feel the weight of the 
body on the foot that is planted, allowing a natural 
oscillatory motion to the arms. 

The double quick step may be executed with dif- 
ferent degrees of swiftness, the cadence may be in- 
creased to one hundred and eighty per minute under 
urgent circumstances. 

The recruits will also be exercised in running, ob- 
serving the principles of the double quick step. 

It is recommended in marching at double quick 
time, or the run, that the men should breathe as much 
as possible through the nose, keeping the mouth 
closed. 

When the men shall be well established in the po- 
sition of the body, and in the manner of marching at 
the different steps, the instructor will unite four men, 
whom he will place in the same rank, elbow to elbow, 
and instruct them in the position of shouldered arms, 
as follows : 

PRINCIPLES OF SHOULDERED ARMS. 

The recruit being in the position of the soldier, the 
instructor will cause him to bend the right arm 
slightly, and place the piece in it, in the following 
manner : 

The piece in the right hand — the barrel nearly ver- 
tical, and resting in the hollow of the left shoulder — 
the guard to the front, the arm hanging nearly at its 
full length near the body ; the thumb and fore-finger 
embracing the guard, the remaining fingers closed 
together, and grasping the swell of the stock just un- 
der the cock, which rests on the little finger. 

Recruits are frequently seen with natural defects, 
in the conformation of the shoulders, breasts and 
hips. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 91 

These the instructor will labor to correct in the 
lesson, without, arms, and afterwards, by steady en- 
deavors, so that the appearance of the pieces in the 
same line may be uniform, and this without con- 
straint to the men in their positions. 

Recruits are liable to derange their position, by 
lowering the right shoulder and right hand, or by 
sinking the hip and spreading out the elbows : 

The instructor will correct all these faults by con- 
tinually rectifying the position; he will sometimes 
take away the piece to replace it the better ; he will 
avoid fatiguing the recruits too much in the begin- 
ning, but labor by degrees to render this position 
natural and easy. 

Finally, the instructor will take great care that the 
piece at a shoulder be not carried too high, or too 
low ; if too high, the right elbow would spread out, 
the soldier would occupy too much space in his rank, 
and the piece be made to waver ; if too low, the files 
would be too much closed, the soldier would not have 
the necessary space to handle his piece with facility, 
the right arm would be too much fatigued, and would 
draw down the shoulder. 

Before passing to the manual of arms, repeat the 
movements of eyes right, left, and front, and the 



92 RIFI.E AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



MANUAL OP ARMS. 

(Remarks upon as in Infantry.) 

In this manual of arms, the command will be given 
to Infantry Corps, as Light Infantry, when it will be 
understood that they are to maneuver as Light Infan- 
try. 

The manual of arms will be taught in the follow- 
ing progression : 

The instructor will command : 

Support — ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Bring the piece, with the right 
hand, perpendicularly to the front and between the 
eyes, the barrel to the rear ; seize the piece with the 
left hand at the lower band, raise this hand as high 
as the chin and seize the piece, at the same time, with 
the right hand four inches below the cock. 

Second Motion. Turn the piece with the right 
hand, the barrel to the front ; carry the piece to the 
left shoulder and pass the forearm extended on the 
breast between the right hand and the cock ; sup- 
port the cock against the left forearm, the left hand 
resting on the right breast. 

Third Motion. Drop the right hand by the side. 

When the instructor shall wish to give repose in 
this position, he will command : 

REST. 

At this command, will bring up smartly the right 
hand to the handle of the piece, when they will not 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 93 

be required to preserve silence or steadiness of posi- 
tion. 

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD. 

At the second word, will resume the position of 
the third motion of support arms. ' 

Shoulder— ARUS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Grasp the piece with the right hand 
under and against the left forearm ; seize it with the 
left at the lower band, the thumb extended ; detach 
the piece slightly from the shoulder, the left forearm 
along the stock. 

Second Motion. Carry the piece vertically to the 
right shoulder with both hands, the rammer to the 
front ; change the position of the right so as to em- 
brace the guard with the thumb and fore-finger ; slip 
the left hand to the hight of the shoulder, the fingers 
extended and joined, the right arm nearly straight. 

Third Motion. Drop the left hand quickly by the 
side. 

Present— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. With the right hand bring the piece 
erect before the center of the body, the rammer to 
the front ; at the same time seize the piece with the 
left hand half-way between the guide-sight and the 
lower band, the thumb extended along the barrel 
and against the stock, the forearm horizontal and 
resting against the body, the hand as high as the 
elbow. 

Second Motion. Grasp the small with the right 
hand below and against the guard. 



94 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Shoulder— AKMSi 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Bring the piece to the right shoul- 
der, at the same time change the position of the right 
hand so as to embrace the guard with the thumb and 
fore-finger ; slip up the left hand to the hight of the 
shoulder, the fingers extended and joined, the right 
arm nearly straight. 

Second Motion. Drop the left hand quickly by the 
side. 

Order— AEMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Seize the piece briskly with the left 
hand, near the upper band, and detach it slightly from 
the shoulder with the right hand ; loosen the grasp 
of the right hand, lower the piece with the left, re- 
seize with the right hand above the lower band, the 
little finger in rear of the barrel, the butt about four 
inches from the ground, the right hand supported 
against the hip ; drop the left hand by the side. 

Second Motion. Let the piece slip through the 
right hand to the ground, by opening slightly the 
fingers, and take the position about to be described. 

POSITION OF ORDER ARMS. 

The hand low, the barrel between the thumb and 
fore-finger extended along the stock, the other fingers 
extended and joined; the muzzle about two inches 
from the right shoulder, the rammer in front ; the toe 
of the butt against, and in a line with, the toe of the 
right foot, the barrel perpendicular. 

When the instructor may wish to give repose in 
this position, he will command : 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 95 

REST. 

At this command, the recruits will not be required 
to preserve silence or steadiness. 

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD. 

At the second word, the recruits will resume the 
position of order arms. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece vertically with the 
right hand to the hight of the right breast, and oppo- 
site the shoulder, the elbow close to the body ; seize 
the piece with the left hand below the right, and drop 
quickly the right hand to grasp the piece at the swell 
of the stock, the thumb and fore-finger embracing the 
guard ; press the piece against the shoulder with the 
left hand, the right arm nearly straight. 

Second Motion. Drop the left hand quickly by the 
side. 

LOAD IN NINE TIMES. 

1. LOAD* 

One time and one motion. 

Grasp the piece with the left hand as high as the 
right elbow, and bring it vertically opposite the mid- 
dle of the body, slip the right hand to the upper band, 
place the butt between the feet, the barrel to the 
front; seize it with the left hand near the muzzle, 
which should be three inches from the body ; carry 
the right hand to the cartridge-box. 

* Whenever the loadings and firings are to be executed, the 
instructor will cause the cartridge-boxes to be brought to the 
front 



96 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

2. Handle— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Seize the cartridge with the thumb and next two 
fingers, and place it between the teeth. 

3. Tear— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Tear the paper to the powder, hold the cartridge 
upright, between the thumb and first two fingers, 
near the top; in this position, place it in front of and 
near the muzzle — the back of the hand to the front. 

4. Charge— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 

Empty the powder into the barrel ; disengage the 
ball from the paper with the right, and the thumb 
and two first fingers of the left ; insert it into the bore, 
the pointed end uppermost, and press it down with 
the right thumb ; seize the head of the rammer with 
the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, the other 
fingers closed, the elbows near the body. 

Draw;— RAMMER. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Half-draw the rammer, by extend- 
ing the right arm, steady it in this position with the 
left thumb ; grasp the rammer near the muzzle with 
the right hand, the little finger uppermost, the nails 
to the front, the thumb extended along the rammer. 

Second Motion. Clear the rammer from the pipes, 
by again extending the arm ; the rammer in the pro- 
longation of the pipes. 

Third Motion. Turn the rammer, the little end 



RIFLE AND LIOHT INFANTRY. 91 

passing near the left shoulder ; place the head of the 
rammer on the ball, the back of the hand to the front. 

Earn— CARTRIDGE. 

One time and one motion. 
Insert the rammer as far as the right hand, and 
steady it in this position with the thumb of the left ; 
seize the rammer at the small end with the thumb and 
fore-tinger of the right hand, the back of the hand to 
the front ; press the ball home, the elbows near the 
body. 

Return— RAMMER. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Draw the rammer half-way out, and 
steady it in this position with the left thumb ; grasp 
it near the muzzle with the right hand, the little 
finger uppermost, the nails to the front, the thumb 
along the rammer ; clear the rammer from the bore 
by extending the arm, the nails to the front ; the ram- 
mer in the prolongation of the bore. 

Second Motion. Turn the rammer, the head pass- 
ing near the left shoulder, and insert it in the pipes 
until the right hand reaches the muzzle, the nails to 
the front. 

Third Motion. Force the rammer home, by placing 
the little finger of the right hand on the head of the 
rammer ; pass the left hand down the barrel to the 
extent of the arm, without depressing the shoulder. 

PRIME. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. "With the left hand raise the piece 
till the hand is as high as the eye, grasp the small of 
the stock with the right hand ; half-face to the right ; 
4 



98 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

place, at the same time, the right foot behind and 
right angles with the left, the hollow of the right foot 
against the left heel; slip the left hand down to the 
lower band, the thumb along the stock, the left elbow 
against the body; bring the piece to the right side, 
the butt below the right fore-arm, the small of the 
stock against the body, and two inches below the 
right breast, the barrel upwards, the muzzle on a 
level with the eye. 

""Second Motion. Half-cock with the thumb of the 
right hand, the fingers supported against the guard 
and the small of the stock, remove the old cap with 
one of the fingers of the right hand, and with the 
thumb and fore-finger of the same hand, take a cap 
from the pouch and place it on the nipple, and press 
it down with the thumb ; seize the small of the stock 
with the right hand. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Bring the piece to the right shoul- 
der and support it there with the left hand, face to 
the front ; bring the right heel to the side of, and in a 
line with, the left ; grasp the piece with the right 
hand, as indicated in the position of shouldered arms. 

Second Motion. Drop the left hand quickly by the 
side. 

READY. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece slightly with the 
right hand, making a half-face to the right on the 
left heel ; carry the right foot to the rear, and place 
it at right angles to the left, the hollow of it oppo- 
site to, and against the left heel ; grasp the piece with 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 99 

the left hand at the lower band and detach it slightly 
from the shoulder. 

Second Motion. Bring down the piece with both 
hands, the barrel upwards, the left thumb extended 
along the stock, the butt below the right forearm, 
the small of the stock against the body, and two 
inches below the right breast ; the muzzle as high as 
the eye, the left elbow against the side ; place, at the 
same time, the right thumb on the head of the cock, 
the other ringers under and against the guard. 

Third Motion. Cock, and seize the piece at the 
small of the stock, without deranging the position of 
the butt. 

AIM. 

One time and one motion. 

Raise the piece with both hands and support the 
butt against the right shoulder, the left elbow down, 
the right as high as the shoulder ; incline the head 
upon the butt, so that the right eye may perceive 
quickly the notch of the hausse, the front sight, and 
the object aimed at ; the left eye closed, the right 
thumb extended along the stock, the fore-finger on 
the trigger. 

REMARKS. 

In two ranks, the front rank men will raise a little 
less the right elbow, to facilitate the aim of the rear 
rank men. 

The rear rank men will each carry the right foot 
about eight inches to the right and towards the left 
heel of the man next on the right in aiming, inclin- 
ing the upper part of the body forward. 



100 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

FIRE. 

One time and one motion. 

Press the fore-finger against the trigger, fire, with- 
out lowering or turning the head, and remain in this 
position. 

REMARKS. 

In firing, the men will aim at some distinct object, 
with the barrel so directed that the line of fire and 
the line of sight will be in the same vertical plane. 

Firings should be executed on ground of different 
inclinations, to accustom the men to fire at objects 
either above or below them. 

LOAD. 
One time and one motion. 

Bring down the piece with both hands, face to the 
front, and take the position of load, heretofore indi- 
cated. Each rear rank man will bring his right foot 
by the side of the left. 

The loading will be continued by the commands 
and means heretofore prescribed. 

If, after firing, the instructor should not wish the 
recruits to reload, he will command : 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and one motion. 

Throw up the piece briskly with the left hand, and 
resume the position of shoulder arms, turning on the 
left heel. 

To accustom the recruits to wait for the command 
fire, the instructor, when they are in the position of 
aim, will command : 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 101 

Recover — ARMS. 
One time and one motion. 

At the word recover, withdraw the finger from the 
trigger; at the command arms, retake the position 
of the third motion of ready. 

From this position, if the instructor should wish to 
bring them to a shoulder, he will command : 

Skoutder—AKMS. 

At the command shoulder, place the thumb upon 
the cock, the fore-finger on the trigger, half-cock, and 
seize the small of the stock with the right hand. 

At the command arms, bring up the piece briskly 
to the right shoulder, and retake the position of 
shoulder arms. 

The recruits being at shoulder arms, when the in- 
structor shall wish to fix bayonets, he will command : 

FIX BAYONETS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Make a half-face to the right, and 
seize the piece with the left hand, at the shoulder. 

Second Motion. Quit the hold of the right hand, 
with the left lower the piece to the ground without 
shock, and carry the right hand to the bayonet. 

Third Motion. Draw the bayonet from the scab- 
bard, carry and fix it on the muzzle, (as in Infantry,) 
seize the piece with the right hand, drop the left, face 
to the front, and assume the position of order arms. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
Two motions. 
(As from Order Arms.) 



102 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Charge— BAYONET. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece slightly with the 
right hand, and make a half-face to the right on the 
left heel ; place the hollow of the right foot opposite 
to, and three inches from, the left heel, the feet square ; 
seize the piece, at the same time, with the left hand 
a little above the lower band. 

Second Motion. Bring down the piece with both 
hands, the barrel uppermost, the left elbow against 
the body ; seize the small of the stock, at the same 
time, with the right hand, which will be supported 
against the hip ; the point of the bayonet as high as 
the eye. 

Shoulder— &BMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Throw up the piece briskly with 
the left hand in facing to the front, place it against 
the right shoulder, the rammer to the front ; turn the 
right hand, so as to embrace the guard, slide the left 
hand to the hight of the shoulder, the right hand 
nearly extended. 

Second Motion. Drop the left hand smartly by the 
side. 

Trail— ARMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. (The same as the first motion of 
Order Arms.) 
Second Motion. (Same as in Infantry, p. 14.) 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
(Same as in Infantry, from Trail, p. 14.) 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 103 

Unfix— FAYOItBT. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. (As first motion of Fix Bayonet.) 
Second Motion. (As second motion of Fix Bayonet.) 
Third Motion. Wrest off the bayonet, return it to 
the scabbard ; seize the piece with the right hand, 
drop the left, face to the front, and assume the posi- 
tion of order arms. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
Two Motions. (As from Order Arms.) 

Secure — ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Bring the piece, with the right hand, 
perpendicular to the front and between the eyes, the 
barrel to the rear ; seize the piece with the left hand 
at the lower band, raise this hand as high as the chin, 
and seize it, at the same time, with the right hand at 
the small. 

Second Motion. Turn the piece with both hands, 
the barrel to the front; bring it opposite the left 
shoulder, the butt against the hip, the left hand at 
the lower band, the thumb as high as the chin, and 
extended on the rammer ; the piece erect, and de- 
tached from the shoulder, the left fore -arm against 
the piece. 

Third Motion. Reverse the piece, turn it under 
the left arm, the left hand remaining at the lower 
band, the thumb on the rammer to prevent it from 
sliding out, the little finger resting against the hip, 
the right hand falling at the same time by the side. 



104 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece with the left hand, 
and seize it with the right at the small. The piece 
erect and detached from the shoulder, the butt against 
the hip, the left fore-arm along the piece. 

Second Motion. (Same as second motion of Shoul- 
der Arms from a Support.) 

Third Motion. (Same as third motion of Shoulder 
Arms from a Support.) 

Right Shoulder Shift— ARMS. 
One time and two motions.. 

First Motion. Detach the piece perpendicularly 
from the shoulder with the right hand, and seize it 
with the left between the lower band and guide-sight, 
raise the piece, the left hand at the hight of the 
shoulder, and four inches from it ; place, at the same 
time, the right hand on the butt, the beak between 
the first two fingers, the other two fingers under the 
butt-plate. 

Second Motion. Quit the piece with the left hand, 
raise and place it on the right shoulder with the right 
hand, the lock-plate upwards; let fall, at the same 
time, the left hand by the side. 

Shoulder — ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece perpendicularly by 
extending the right arm to its full length, the ram- 
mer to the front ; at the same time, seize the piece 
with the left hand, below the tail-band. 

Second Motion. Quit the butt with the right hand, 
which will immediately embrace the guard; lower 



. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 105 

the piece to the position of shoulder arms; slide up 
the left hand to the hight of the shoulder, the ringers 
extended and closed ; drop the left hand by the side. 

FROM A SUPPORT. 

Right Shoulder Shift— ARMS. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Seize the piece with the right hand, 
below and near the left fore-arm ; place the left hand 
under the butt, the heel of the butt between the first 
two ringers. 

Second Motion. Turn the piece with the left hand, 
the lock-plate upwards ; carry it to the right shoul- 
der, the left hand still holding the butt, the muzzle 
elevated ; hold the piece in this position, and place 
the right hand upon the butt, the beak between the 
first two fingers, the others on the plate. 

Support — ARM S. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. (As first motion of Shoulder from 
Right Shoulder Shift.) 

Second Motion. Turn the piece with both hands, 
the barrel to the front, carry it opposite the left shoul- 
der, slip the right hand to the small of the stock, 
place the left fore-arm extended on the breast, and 
let fall the right hand by the side. 

Arms— AT WILL, or Ease— ARMS. 
(As in Infantry, p. 15.) 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
Retake smartly the position of shoulder arms. 



106 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

PROM A SHOULDER. 

Left Shoulder Shift— ARMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Bring the piece erect to the center 
of the body, as in present arms. 

Second Motion. Turn the piece, the barrel out, 
and carry it against the left shoulder, as in the In- 
fantry tactics. 

Second Motion. Slope the piece diagonally to the 
rear, and drop the right hand. 

Shoulder— AEMS. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Raise the piece perpendicularly 
with the left hand, and seize it at the handle with 
the right. 

Second Motion. Carry the piece with the right 
hand to the right shoulder, turning the rammer to 
the front ; seize the piece with the left hand at the 
shoulder, and grasp the cock and guard with the 
right hand. 

Third Motion. Drop the left hand as when at or- 
dered arms. 

To cause the pieces to be placed upon the ground, 
the instructor will command : 

Ground — ARMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Turn the piece with the right hand 
the barrel to the left, at the same time, seize the car- 
tridge box with the left hand, bend the body, advance 
the left foot, the heel opposite the lower band ; lay 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 10 7 

the piece on the ground with the right hand, the toe 
of the butt on a line with the right toe, the knees 
slightly bent, the right heel raised. 

Second Motion. Rise up, bring the left foot by the 
side of the right, quit the cartridge box with the left 
hand, and drop the hands by the side. 

Raise— ARMS. 

One time and two motions. 

First Motion. Seize the cartridge-box with the 
left hand, bend the body, advance the left foot oppo- 
site the lower band, and seize the piece with the 
right hand. 

Second Motion. Raise the piece, bringing the left 
foot by the side of the right ; turn the piece with the 
right hand, the rammer to the front, at the same 
time, quit the cartridge-box with the left hand, and 
drop the hand by the side. 

INSPECTION OF ARMS. 

The recruits being at order arms, the command 
will be : 

Inspection of — ARMS. 

One time and three motions. 

(Same as in Infantry, p. 28.) 

If, instead of inspection of arms, bayonets only are 
to be fixed, the command is: 

Fix— BAYONET. 

Take the position prescribed in the first motion of 

inspection of arms, fix bayonet, and face to the front. 

Bayonets fixed, if it be the wish of the instructor, 



108 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

after firing, to ascertain whether the pieces have been 
discharged, he will command : 

Spring— UAM.MERS. 
(As in Infantry, p. 29.) 

The manual of arms frequently distorts the persons 
of recruits, before they acquire ease and confidence in 
the several positions. They are extremely liable to 
curve the sides and back, and to derange the shoul- 
ders, especially in loading. The instructor, there- 
fore, will often recur to elementary principles, and 
not cause them to dwell too long in one position. 

(Remarks as in Infantry, p. 9.) 

TO MARK TIME. 

The four men marching in the direct step, the in- 
structor will command : 

1. Mark Time. 2. MARCH. 

(As in Infantry, p. 32.) 

To resume the direct step, the command will be : 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, which will be given when 
a foot is coming to the ground, the recruit will retake 
the step of twenty-eight inches. 

1. Change Step. 2. MARCH. 
(As in Infantry, p. 33.) 

TO MARCH BACKWARDvS. 

The command will be : 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 109 

1. Squad Backward, 2. MARCH. 

At the second command, the recruits will step off 
smartly, with the left foot fourteen inches to the rear, 
reckoning from heel to heel, and so on with the feet 
in succession, till the command : 

Squad— HALT. 

The men will halt at this command, and bring back 
the foot in front by the side of the other. 

This step will always be executed in quick time. 
The recruits march straight to rear, without derang- 
ing the erect position of the body or the piece. 

TO LOAD IN FOUR TIMES. 

(Remarks as in Infantry, pp. 21, 22.) 

1. Load in Four Times. 2. LOAD. 

First Time. Execute the times of load. Handle 
cartridge, tear cartridge, charge cartridge. 
Two. Draw rammer, ram cartridge. 
Three. Return rammer, prime. 
Four. Shoulder arms. 

TO LOAD AT WILL. 

Execute the loadings as in four times, without 
resting on the times. 



The firings are direct or oblique, and will be exe- 
cuted as follows : 



110 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

THE DIRECT FIRE. 

The command will be : 

1. Fire by Squad. 2. Squad. 3. READY. 4. AIM. 
5. FIRE. 6. LOAD. 

(These commands will be executed as has been 
prescribed in the Manual of Arms.) 

At the third command, the men will come to the 
position of ready. 

At the sixth, they will load and come to the posi- 
tion of ready. 

The firing will be re-commenced by the commands: 

1. Squad. 2. AIM. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD. 
To cease firing, the command will be : 

CEASE FIRING, 

At this command, the recruits will cease firing, 
load their pieces, if unloaded, and bring them to a 
shoulder. 

OBLIQUE FIRINGS. 

(As in Infantry , p. 25.) 

POSITION OF THE TWO RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE 
TO THE RIGHT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 25.) 

POSITION OF THE TWO RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE 
TO THE LEFT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 26,) except that the rear rank 
man will advance the right foot towards the right 
heel of the man on the right of his file-leader. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. Ill 

TO FIRE BY FILE. 

(As in Infantry, p. 27.) 

TO ARREST THE FIRE. 

ROLL. 
(As in Infantry, p. 27.) 

TO FIRE BY BANE. 

The fire by rank will be executed by each entire 
rank alternately. 

The instructor will command : 

1. Fire by Bank, 2. Squad. 3. READY. 4. Rear 
Bank. 5. AIM. 6. FIRE. 7. LOAD. 

At the third command, the two ranks will take the 
position of ready, in the direct fire. 

At the seventh command, the rear rank will exe- 
cute what has been prescribed in the direct fire, and 
take the position of ready. 

When the instructor sees several men in the rear 
rank in the position of ready, he will command : 

1. Front Bank, 2. AIM. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD. 

The front rank will execute what has been pre- 
scribed for the rear rank, but will not step off with 
the right foot. 

TO FIRE AND LOAD KNEELING. 

In this exercise, the squad loaded will be drawn 
up in one rank. The instruction will be given to 
each man without times or motions, and in the fol- 
lowing manner. The instructor will command : 



112 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 






Fire and Load Kneeling. 



At this command, the man on the right of the 
squad will move forward three paces and halt, then 
carry the right foot to the rear and to the right of the 
left heel, and in a position convenient for placing the 
right knee upon the ground in bending the left leg, 
place the right knee upon the ground, lower the 
piece, the left fore-arm supported upon the thigh on 
the same side, the right hand on the small of the 
stock, the butt resting on the right thigh, the left 
hand supporting the piece near the lower band; the 
right leg nearly perpendicular to the left foot and the 
man seated on the right heel ; raise the piece with 
the right hand, support it with the left, near the tail- 
band, the left elbow resting on the left thigh near 
the knee, cock and seize the piece at the small, bring 
it to the shoulder, aim and fire; bring the piece 
down, and support it with the left hand, butt against 
right thigh ; carry the piece to the rear, rising on the 
knee, the barrel downwards, the butt resting on the 
ground ; support the piece with the left hand, at or 
near the upper band, draw cartridge and load; when 
loaded, bring the piece to the front with the left hand, 
seize it with the right hand at the small of the stock, 
turn the piece the barrel uppermost and horizontal, 
the left elbow resting on the left thigh, half-cock, re- 
move the old cap and prime, rise and return to the 
ranks. 

The second man will next be taught in the same 
manner, and so on through the remainder of the 
squad. 

TO FIRE AND LOAD LYING. 

Squad in one rank ; instruction given individually, 
without times and motions. 
The command will be : 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 113 

Fire and Load Lying. 
At this command, the man on the right of the squad 
will advance three paces and halt ; he will then bring 
his piece to an order drop on both knees and place him- 
self on the ground, flat on his belly ; in this position, he 
will support the piece nearly horizontally with the left 
hand, near the lower band, the butt and left elbow 
resting on the ground, the barrel up ; cock the piece 
with the right hand, and carry it to the small of the 
stock, raise the piece with both hands, press the butt 
against the shoulder, and resting on both elbows, aim 
and fire; as soon as he has fired, bring the piece 
down, turn upon the left side, still resting on his left 
elbow, bring back the piece until the cock is opposite 
the breast, the butt resting on the ground, take a 
cartridge with the right hand, seize the small with 
this hand, holding the cartridge with the thumb and 
two next fingers ; he will then throw himself on his 
back, still holding the piece with both hands, carry 
the piece to the rear, place the butt between the 
heels, the barrel up, the muzzle elevated, charge car- 
tridge, draw rammer, ram cartridge and return ram- 
mer, turn again upon the left side and prime, raise 
the piece vertically, rise, turn about, and resume his 
position in the ranks; each man will be thus in- 
structed. 

BAYONET EXERCISE. 

The bayonet exercise will be confined to two move- 
ments — the guard against infantry, and the guard 
against cavalry. 

Men in one rank, with intervals of two paces, at 
shoulder arms, the command will be : 

1. Guard against Infantry. 2. GUARD. 
One time and two motions. 
First Motion. Make a half-face to the right, turn- 



114 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

ing on both heels, feet square to each other, raise the 
piece slightly, and seize it with the left hand near the 
lower band. 

Second Motion. Carry the right foot twenty inches 
perpendicularly to the rear, the right heel on a pro- 
longation of the left, knees slightly bent, weight of 
the body resting equally on both legs; lower the 
piece with both hands, the barrel up, left elbow 
against the body ; seize the piece with the right hand 
at the small, arms falling naturally, point of the bay- 
onet slightly elevated. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 

One time and one motion. 

Throw up the piece with the left hand, and place it 

against the right shoulder — at the same time, bring 

the right heel by the side of the left, and face to the 

front. 

1. Guard against Cavalry. 2. G-UARD. 
One time and two motions. 
Both motions same as guard against infantry, ex- 
cept that the right hand will be supported against the 
hip, and the bayonet held as in charge bayonet. 

Shoulder— ARMS. 
(Same as from Guard against Infantry.) 

ALIGNMENTS. TO MARCH TO THE FRONT. THE OB- 
LIQUE MARCH. CHANGE OP TIME. TO MARCH BACK- 
WARDS. 

(As in Infantry, pp. 34 — 31.) 

To face about in marching, the command will be : 

1. Squad, right about. 2. MARCH. 
At the command march, which will be given at the 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 115 

nstant the left foot is coming to the ground, the re- 
:ruit will bring this foot to the ground, and turning 
©n it, will face to the rear ; he will then place the 
tight foot in the new direction and step off with the 
left foot. 

THE MARCH BY THE FLANK. 

The rank at a halt, the command will be : 

1. Squad Eight— FACE. 2. Forward. 3. MARCH. 

At the command face, the rank will face to the 
right ; after facing, the even numbered men will step 
quickly to the right side of the odd numbered men, 
who stand fast, when the men will be formed into 
files of two men abreast. 

At the command march, the men will step off 
smartly with the left foot, the files aligned and pre- 
serving their intervals. 

The march by the left flank, will be executed by 
the same commands, substituting the word left for 
right, and by inverse means, the even numbers will 
stand fast and the odd will place themselves on the 
left side of the even numbered men. 

(Remarks as in Infantry, pp. 31, 38.) 

To halt the rank and face it to the front, the com- 
mand will be : 

1. Squad, 2. HALT. 3. FRONT. 

At the command halt, the rank will halt promptly, 
and no man stir. 

At the command front, each man will front by 
facing to the left, if marching by the right flank, and 
to the right if marching by the left flank ; the rear 
rank men will, at the same time, move quickly into 
their places, and form one rank again. 

To change direction by file, command : 



116 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

By file left {or right) MARCH. 
(As in Infantry, p. 39.) 

REMARKS. 

Keep up the touch of the elbows ; the man on the 
side, to which the wheel is made, will shorten the 
first three or four steps. 

To face by the right or left flank in marching, the 
command will be: 
1. Squad by the right {or left) Flank. 2. MARCH. 

(As in Infantry, p. 39;) 

REMARKS. 

The men will double and undouble rapidly. If in 
facing by the flank the squad should face to the rear, 
the men will come into one rank as heretofore pre- 
scribed ; the men in the rear always move up to form 
in single rank, and the order of numbers is never in- 
verted. 

When the squad is faced to the rear, to face by 
the left flank, the even numbers will double to the 
left of the odd numbers — by the right flank, the odd 
numbers double to the right of the even numbers ; 
pieces at a shoulder or a support. 

The above movement in double quick time is exe- 
cuted by the same principles, giving the command 
double quick before that of march; the pieces at a 
right shoulder or at a trail. 

Marching of Rifle and Light Infantry Corps will 
always be in quick time, unless otherwise commanded. 
Marching in double quick time, the men will always 
carry their pieces on the right shoulder, or at a trail. 
If the pieces are to be carried at a trail, the command 
trail arms will be given before the command double 
quick. If this command be not given, the men will 
shift their pieces to the right shoulder, at the com- 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. Ill 

mand double quick. In either case, the men will 
bring their pieces to a shoulder at the command halt. 
These rules are general. 

The odd and even files, numbered as one, two, in 
the company, in two ranks from right to left, will 
form groups of four men, who will be designated com- 
rades in hat tie. 

WHEELINGS. 

(As in Infantry, p. 39.) 

TO STACK ARMS. 

Men at order arms, the command will be : 
Stackr- ARMS. 

At this command, the front rank man of every even 
numbered file, will seize the piece with the left hand 
near the upper band; will place it a little in advance 
of his left toe, barrel towards the body, and draw the 
rammer from its place. The front rank man of every 
odd numbered file, will also draw the rammer slightly, 
and pass his piece to the man next on his left, who 
will seize it with the right hand below the upper 
band, and place the butt a little in advance of the 
right toe of the man on his right, the barrel to the 
front; he will then cross the rammers of the two 
pieces, the rammer of the piece of the odd numbered 
man being inside. The rear rank man of every even 
file, will also draw his rammer slightly, lean his piece 
forward, the lock-plate down, advance the right foot 
ahead six inches, and insert the rammer and barrel 
of the piece of his front rank man ; with his left hand 
he will place the butt of his piece on the ground 
thirty-two inches in rear of, and perpendicular to, the 
front rank, bringing back his foot by the side of the 
left ; the front rank man of every even file will, at 
the same time, lean the stock to the rear, quit it with 



118 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

his right hand, and force all the rammers down. The 
stack being formed, the rear rank man of the odd file 
will pass his piece into his left hand, the barrel to the 
front, inclining it forward, will rest it on the stack. 

TAKE ARMS. 

(As in Infantry, p. 30.) 



SCHOOL OP THE COMPANY. 

Company formations, commands and maneuvers 
in Light Infantry and Rifle, are the same as for In- 
fantry, with the exceptions herein noted. 

FORMING COMPANY — FORM AS IN INFANTRY. 

1. In two ranks form company . 2. Company right — 
FACE. 3. MARCH. 

At the command face, the company, will face to 
the right, except the right guide and man on the 
right, who stand fast. 

At the command march, execute what is prescribed 
for Infantry, substituting right for left where it occurs. 

REMARKS. 

These formations will habitually be executed by 
right of companies. If to be executed by the left, 
the company will be faced about, and the guides 
posted in the rear of the rear rank. 

The officers will be posted as in Infantrg. 

The corporals will be posted in the front rank, and 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 119 

on the right and left of platoons, according to hight. 
The tallest corporal and the tallest man will form the 
first file, the next two tallest men the second file, and 
so on to the last file, which will be composed of the 
shortest corporal and shortest man. 

In One Rank form Company — MARCH. 

(As in Infantry, substituting the word right for 
left, wherever it occurs ; also, left for right.) 

POST OF OFFICERS IN COLUMN. 

IN COLUMN BY COMPANY. IN COLUMN BY PLATOON. 
IN COLUMN BY SECTION. TO OPEN RANKS. 

To the Rear, Open Order— MARCH. 

Manual of Arms in the following order : 

Present Arms, Shoulder Arms. 
Order Arms, 
Ground Arms, 

Raise Arms, Shoulder Arms, 

Support Arms, Shoulder Arms, 

Fix Bayonet, Shoulder Arms, 

Change Bayonet, Shoulder Arms, 

Trail Arms, Shoulder Arms, 

Unfix Bayonet, Shoulder Arms, 

Secure Arms, Shoulder Arms. 
Load in nine times. 

TO CLOSE RANKS. 

1. Close Order. 2. MARCH. 
(As in Infantry, p. 51.) 

ALIGNMENTS AND MANUAL OF ARMS IN CLOSED RANKS. 

(As in Infantry, p. 51.) 

The file-closers, in all cases, will preserve the dis- 
tance of two paces from the rear rank. 



120 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

LOAD IN FOUR TIMES — LOAD AT WILL. 

(As in Infantry ', p. 52.) 

TO FIRE BY COMPANY. 

(As in Infantry, p. 52,) except that at the command 
load, the men will bring back their pieces, load, and 
take the position of ready. 

The firing will be recommenced by the commands : 

1. Company. 2. Aim. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD. 

TO FIRE BY FILE. 

(As in Infantry, p. 53.) 

THE FIRE BY RANK. 

Command : 

1. Fire by Bank. 2. Company. 3. Beady. 4. Bear 
Bank— Am. 5. FIRE. 6. LOAD. 

(As in Squad Drill, p. 111.) 

1. Front Bank. 2. Aim. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD. 

(As in Infantry.) 

The Fire by File being the most important, the 
recruits will be made familiar with it. 

TO FIRE BY REAR RANK. 

(As in Infantry, p. 53.) 

TO RESUME THE PROPER FRONT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 54.) 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 121 

TO ADVANCE IN LINE OF BATTLE. 

(As in Infantry, p. 55.) 

TO HALT THE COMPANY ADVANCING IN LINE, AND TO 
ALIGN IT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 56.) 

ADVANCING IN LINE TO OBLIQUE TO THE RIGHT OR LEFT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 56.) 

TO RESUME THE DIRECT MARCH. 

(As in Infantry, p. 57.) 

TO MARCH IN RETREAT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 57.) 

TO HALT THE COMPANY RETIRING IN LINE, AND FACE 
IT TO THE FRONT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 58.) 

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK. 

Command : 

1. Company, Right— -FACE. 2. Forward. 3. MARCH. 
Execute the first command as in infantry, except 
that the front rank will double as in the squad drill ; 
the rear rank will, at the same time, side-step to the 
right, and double in the same manner, so that the 
files will be formed of four men ; the file-closers will 
also side-step to the right, and preserve the distances. 

REMARKS. 

In the march by the left flank, the rear rank will 
side-step to the left one pace, before doubling. 



122 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

TO CHANGE DIRECTION BY FILE. 

(As in Infantry, p. 59.) 

TO HALT THE COMPANY MARCHING BY THE FLANK, 
AND TO FACE IT TO THE FRONT. 

1. Company. 2. Halt 3. FRONT. 

As in Infantry, except the second and third com- 
mands, will be executed as prescribed in the squad 
drill. 

As soon as the files have undoubled, the rear rank 
will close to its proper distance. 

MARCHING BY A FLANK, TO FORM ON RIGHT (OR LEFT) 
BY FILE INTO LINE. 

1. On Right by File into Line. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the rear-rank men doubled 
will mark time, the captain and covering sergeant 
will turn to the right, march straight forward, and be 
halted when they have passed at least six paces be- 
yond the rank of file-closers ; the captain will direct 
the alignment of the front rank, the covering ser- 
geant behind the captain, at the distance of the rear 
rank; the two men on the right of the front rank, 
doubled, will pass beyond the covering sergeant and 
captain, and turn to the right ; they will march elbow 
to elbow, and direct themselves towards the line of 
battle ; when they arrive at two paces from this line, 
the even number will shorten step, so that the odd 
number may precede him on the line, who will place 
himself on the left side of the captain ; the even num- 
ber will afterwards oblique to the left, and place him- 
self on the left of the odd number ; the next two men 
of the front rank will pass in the same manner be- 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 123 

hind the two first, turn to the right, and place them- 
selves in the same manner to the left of the first two 
men; the remaining files of the rank will form in the 
same manner. The rear rank, doubled, will execute 
the movement in the same manner, commencing after 
four men of the front rank are established on the line 
of battle ; the rear rank men, as they arrive on line, 
will cover actually their file leaders. In marching by 
left flank, inverse commands and means will be used. 

MARCHING BY THE FLANK TO FORM BY COMPANY 
OR BY PLATOON INTO LINE, AND FACE IT TO THE 
FRONT. 

(As in Infantry, p. 60.) 

REMARKS. 

In column by company, right or left in front, the 
covering sergeant and second sergeant will be placed 
on the right and left of the front rank respectively ; 
they will be called the right guide and left guide. In 
column, by platoon, there will be but one guide to 
each platoon, placed on its left flank if right in front, 
and on the right flank if left in front. 

MARCHING BY THE FRONT TO MARCH BY A FLANK. 

TO BREAK INTO COLUMN BY PLATOON, EITHER AT A 
HALT OR IN MARCH. 

(As in Infantry, p. 62.) 

TO MARCH IN COLUMN. 

(As in Infantry, p. 63.) 



124 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

TO CHANGE DIRECTION. 

(As in Infantry, and according to the principles 
laid down in Rifle Squad Drill, pp. 115, 116.) 

TO HALT THE COLUMN. 

(As in Infantry, p. 66.) 

TO WHEEL INTO LINE. 

(As in Infantry, p. 66.) 

To break the company into platoons, and to reform 
the company. 

TO BREAK THE COMPANY INTO PLATOONS. 

The company in march, and supposed to make part 
of a column, right in front, the command will be : 

Break into— PLATOONS. 

The captain will take place before the center of the 
first platoon ; the first lieutenant will pass round to 
the center of his platoon, and give the caution mark 
time. 

The captain will then command : 

MARCH. 

The first platoon will march straight forward ; the 
covering sergeant will move to the left flank of this 
platoon, as soon as the flank shall be disengaged. 

At the command march,, by the captain, the second 
platoon will mark time, its chief will immediately add: 

1. Right oblique. 2. MARCH. 
This last command will be given the instant the 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 125 

rear rank of the first platoon shall have passed ; the 
men will shorten the step in obliquing, so that when 
the command forward march is given, the platoon 
may have its exact distance. The guide of the second 
platoon being near the direction of the guide of the 
first, the chief of the second will command forward, 
and add march the instant the guide of his platoon 
shall cover the guide of the first. In column left in 
front, inverse means are used, and the left guide of 
the company will shift to the right flank of the second 
platoon; the covering sergeant will remain on the 
right of the first. 

TO REFORM THE COMPANY, IX MARCH. 

Column by platoon right in front, the command 
will be : 

Form— COMPANY. 

And add : 

1. First Platoon. 2. Right— OBLIQUE. 

The second platoon will march straight forward. 
The captain will then command : 

3. MARCH. 

At this command, repeated by the chief of the 
second, the first platoon will oblique to the right ; the 
covering sergeant on the left of the first platoon, will 
pass by the front rank and return to the right of the 
company. When the first platoon shall have nearly 
unmasked the second, the captain will command : 

1. Mark time. 

And the instant the unmasking is complete, he 
will add : 



126 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

2. MARCH. 

The first platoon will mark time. In the meantime, 
the second platoon will have continued to march 
straight forward, and when nearly up with the first, 
the captain will command: 

Forward. 
And when the two platoons unite, add : 

MARCH. 
The first platoon will cease to mark time. 

REMARKS. 

The platoons, in obliquing, will not shorten the 
step too much. The chiefs will face to their platoons, 
and direct the step. In column of several companies, 
each company should march in the same step, with- 
out shortening or slackening, whilst that which pre- 
cedes breaks, to guard against an elongation of col- 
umn. 

IN MARCH. 

IN COLUMN, TO BREAK FILES TO THE REAR. AND TO 
CAUSE THEM TO REENTER INTO LINE. 

The command will be : 

1. Two files from left to rear. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, two files on the left or 
right of the company will mark time ; the two rear 
rank men of these files will, as soon as the rear rank 
of the company shall clear them, move to the right 
by advancing the outer shoulder ; the odd number 
will place himself behind the third file from that flank, 
the even number behind the fourth, passing behind 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 121 

the odd number; the two front rank men will, in 
like manner, move to the right ; the odd number will 
place himself behind the first file", the even number 
behind the second. If the files are broken from the 
right, inverse means will be used ; the even number 
of the rear rank will place himself behind the third 
file, and the odd the fourth ; the even number of the 
front rank behind the first file, the odd the second, 
the odd numbers passing behind the even. To break 
two or more files from the same side, the same com- 
mands will be given. At the command march, the 
files already broken, advancing the outer shoulder, 
will gain the space of two files to the right or left, as 
the case may be, shortening, at the same time, their 
step, in order to make room between themselves and 
the rear rank of the company for the files last ordered 
to the rear, who will break in the same manner as 
the first. The men who double, should increase the 
length of the step, so as not to lose distance. New 
files must always be broken from the same side. 

To cause files broken off to return into line, the 
command will be : 

1. Two Files into Line. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the first two files will 
return briskly into line; the others will gain the 
space of two files, by advancing the inner shoulder 
towards the flank to which they belong. 

To break two or three groups together, the com- 
mand will be : 

Four or Six Files from left (or right) to rear — 
MARCH. 

The files designated will mark time, advance a lit- 
tle the outer shoulder ; as soon as the company shall 



128 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

clear it, will oblique at once, and place itself behind 
the four neighboring files, in the same manner as if 
group by group, taking care that distances are pre- 
served. 

Four or Six Files into line — MARCH. 

The files designated will advance the inner shoul- 
der, move up and form, on the flank of the company, 
by the shortest lines ; as files are broke off, the guide 
will close up, and also open out to make room as 
they come into line. 

Files which march in the rear, are disposed of as 
follows : the left files, as if the company was march- 
ing by the right flank — right files as if by left flank. 
When there is, on the right or left of a sub-division, 
a file which does not belong to a group, it will be 
broken off singly ; files will be broken off from the 
side of direction. 

TO MARCH THE COLUMN IN ROUTE, AND TO EXECUTE 
THE MOVEMENTS INCIDENT THERETO. 

(Route step, one hundred and ten steps per minute.) 
At the command : 

1. Column forward. 2. Guide left {or right.) 3. Route 
step. 4. MARCH. 
(As in Infantry, p. 72.) 

At the command : 

1. Shoulder arms. 2. Quick time. 3. MARCH. 

The men will resume the cadenced step, and close, 
so as to leave a distance of sixteen inches between 
each rank. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 129 

After the command form platoons is executed, the 
front will be diminished and increased by files as 
heretofore prescribed. Subdivisions must not be re- 
duced to a front of less than six files, not counting 
the chief. 

If the company be marching by the right flank to 
undouble files, resume the cadenced step, arms shoul- 
dered or supported, and command : 

1. In two ranks undouble files. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the odd numbers continue 
to march straight forward, the even numbers shorten 
step, and obliquing to the left, place themselves 
promptly behind the odd numbers ; the rear rank will 
gain a step to the left, and retake the touch of elbows 
on the side of the front rank. 

If the company be marching by the left flank, the 
even numbers will continue to march forward, and 
the odd numbers will undouble. 

TO DOUBLE FILES. 

The command will be : 

1. In four ranks, double files. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the files will double, as 
prescribed in facing the company by the right or left 
flank. 

TO COUNTERMARCH. 

The command will be : 

1. Countermarch. 2. Company, right — FACE. 3. By 
file left. 4. MARCH. 

(As in Infantry, p. 75), except that the company 
will face at the second command. 
5 



130 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

And in fronting the company, use the command 
front, instead of front face. 

MARCHING IN COLUMN BY PLATOON, TO FORM ON THE 
RIGHT (OR LEFT) INTO LINE OF BATTLE. 

(As in Infantry.) 

FORMATION OF A COMPANY FROM TWO RANKS INTO 
FOUR AND RECIPROCALLY, AT A HALT AND IN 
MARCH. 

The company being formed in two ranks, at a halt, 
and supposed to form part of a column right, in front, 
to form it into four ranks, the command will be ; 

1. In four ranks, form Company. 2. Company, left — 
FACE. 3. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command face, the left guide will stand 
fast ; the company will face to the left ; the rear rank 
will gain the distance of one pace from the front rank 
by a side step to the left and rear, and the men will 
iorm into four ranks, as in the School of the Soldier. 

At the command march, the first file will reface to 
the front, without undoubling ; all the other files of 
four will step off, and closing successively to about 
five inches of the preceding files, halt, and face to the 
front, remaining doubled; the file-closers will take 
their new places, at two paces in rear of the fourth 
rank. 

FROM FOUR RANKS. 

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. Company, right — 
FACE. 3. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command face, the left guide stands fast, 
and the company faces to the right. 

At the command march, the right guide will step 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 131 

off and march An the prolongation of the front rank; 
the leading rile of four men, will step off at the same 
time, the other files stand fast; the second file will 
step off when there shall be between it and the first, 
space sufficient to form into two ranks, and so on 
successively to the last file. 

As soon as the last file shall have its interval, the 
command will be given : 

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT. 

At the command front, the company will face to 
the front, and form in two ranks by undoubling files. 

The company marching to the front in two ranks, 
to form in four ranks, the command will be : 

1. In four ranks, form company. 2. By the left, double 
files. 3. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command march, the left guide and left file 
of the company will march straight to the front, the 
company will make a half-face to the left, the odd 
numbers placing themselves behind the even num- 
bers; the even numbers of the rear rank will shorten 
their steps a little, to permit the odd numbers of the 
front rank to get between them and the even num- 
bers of the front rank ; the files thus formed of fours, 
except the left file, will continue to march obliquely, 
lengthening their steps slightly, so as to keep con- 
stantly abreast of the guide ; each file will close suc- 
cessively on the file next on the left, and when at 
the proper distance from that file, face to the front by 
a half-face to the right, and take the touch of elbows 
to the left. 

Marching to the front in four ranks, to form in two 
ranks, the command will be : 



132 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. By the right un- 
double files. 3. MARCH {or double qiMck march.) 

At the command march, the left guide and left file 
will continue to march straight to the front, the com- 
pany will half-face to the right, and march obliquely, 
lengthening the step a little, in order to keep as near 
as possible abreast of the guide; as soon as the 
second file from the left shall have gained to the right 
the interval necessary for the left file to form into two 
ranks, the second file will face to the front by a half- 
face to the left, and march straight forward ; the left 
file will immediately form into two ranks, and take 
the touch of elbows to the left ; each file will execute 
successively, what has been prescribed for the file 
next to the left, and each file will form into two ranks, 
when the file next on its right has obliqued the re- 
quired distance, and faced to the front. 

REMARKS. 

If the company be supposed to form part of a col- 
umn left in front, these different movements will be 
executed by inverse means, substituting the indica- 
tion left for right. 



SKIRMISHERS; 

OR, LIGHT INFANTRY AND RIFLE COMPANY MOVEMENTS. 

By the general term skirmishers, will herein be 
understood any company or body of Infantry, Light 
Infantry, Rifle or Battalion Companies, thrown out 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 133 

and actually deployed into open files or loose order. 
The term will only be applied to companies while so 
extended. 

The movements of skirmishers should be subjected 
to such rules as will give the commander the means 
of moving them in any direction, with promptitude. 

Skirmishers will be thrown out to clear the way 
for, and to cover the movements of the main corps ; 
they may be thrown out to the front, to a flank, to 
the rear, as may be deemed necessary. 

Every body of skirmishers should have a reserve, 
the ^strength and composition of which, will vary 
according to circumstances. 

If the body thrown out be within sustaining dis- 
tance of the main corps, a small reserve will be suffi- 
cient for each company, whose duty it shall be to fill 
vacant places, furnish the line with cartridges, relieve 
the fatigued and serve as a rallying point for the 
skirmishers. 

If the main corps be at a considerable distance, 
besides the company reserves, another reserve will 
be required, composed of entire companies, which 
will be employed to sustain and reinforce such parts 
of the line as may be warmly attacked ; this reserve 
should be strong enough to relieve at least half the 
companies deployed as skirmishers. 

The reserves will be placed behind the center of 
the line of skirmishers, the company reserves at one 
hundred and fifty, and principal reserve at four hun- 
dred paces. This rule is however not invariable. 

The reserves, while holding themselves within sus- 
taining distance of the line, should be, as much as 
possible, in position to afford each other mutual pro- 
tection, and must carefully profit by any accidents of 
the ground to conceal themselves from the view of 
the enemy, and to shelter themselves from his fire. 



134 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

The movements of skirmishers will be executed in 
quick or double quick time. The run will be resorted 
to only in cases of urgent necessity. Skirmishers 
will be permitted to carry their pieces in the manner 
most convenient to them. The movements will be 
indicated by the sounds of the bugle (or beats of the 
drum.) Other conventional signs may for particu- 
lar cases, be adopted to express the same commands : 
as the sword held at arm's length, above the head ; 
to the right, left, front, or rear, without or with the 
cap in the other hand, without or with the kerchief 
attached to the point of 'the sword. The officers and, 
if necessary, the non-commissioned officers, will re- 
peat and cause the commands to be executed, as 
soon as they are given ; but to avoid mistakes when 
the signals are employed, they will wait until the 
last bugle note is sounded before commencing the 
movement. 

When skirmishers are ordered to move rapidly, the 
officers and non-commissioned officers will see that 
the men economise their strength, keep cool, and 
profit by all the advantages which the ground may 
offer for cover. This is important 

The instruction will be divided into five articles, 
and subdivided as follows : 

FIRST. 

1. To deploy forward. 

2. To deploy by the flank. 

3. To extend intervals. 

4. To close intervals. 

5. To relieve skirmishers. 

SECOND. 

1. To advance in line. 

2. To retreat in line. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 135 

3. To change direction. 

4. To march by the flank. 

THIRD. 

1. To lire at a halt. 

2. To fire marching. 

FOURTH. 

1. The rally. 

2. To form column to march in any direction. 

3. The assembly. 



1. To deploy a battalion as skirmishers. 

2. To rally the battalion deployed as skirmishers. 

In the first four articles it is supposed that the 
movements are executed by a company deployed as 
skirmishers on a front equal to that of the battalion 
in the order of battle. In the fifth article, it is sup- 
posed that each company of the battallion, being de- 
ployed as skirmishers, occupies a front of one hun- 
dred paces. 

From these two examples, rules may be deduced 
for all cases, whatever may be the numerical strength 
of the skirmishers and the extent of ground they 
ought to occupy. 

DEPLOYMENTS. 

A company may be deployed as skirmishers in two 
ways — forward and by the flank. The deployment 
forward will be adopted, when the company is behind 
the line on which it is to be established as skirmish- 
ers ; it will be deployed by the flank, when it finds 
itself on that line. 



136 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

When a company is to be deployed as skirmishers, 
it will be divided into two platoons, and each platoon 
will be subdivided into two sections ; the comrades 
in battle, forming groups of four men, will be careful 
to know and to sustain each other. The captain will 
assure himself that the files in the center of each pla- 
toon and section are designated. A company may be 
deployed as skirmishers on its right, left, center, or 
any other named file whatsoever. In this manner, 
skirmishers may be thrown forward with the greatest 
possible rapidity on any ground they may be required 
to occupy. 

A chain of skirmishers ought generally to preserve 
their alignment, but no advantage the ground may 
present should be sacrificed to attain this regularity. 

The interval between skirmishers depends upon the 
extent of ground to be covered ; but in general, the 
groups of four men should not be removed more than 
forty paces from each other. The habitual distance 
between men of the same group, in open ground, will 
be five paces ; in no case will they lose sight of each 
other. 

The front to be occupied to cover a battalion, com- 
prehends its front and the half of each interval which 
separates it from the battalion on its right and left. 
If a line, whose wings are not supported, should be 
covered by skirmishers, it will be necessary to either 
protect the flanks with skirmishers, or to extend them 
in front of the line so far beyond the wings, as to op- 
pose effectually any attempt which might be made 
by the enemy's skirmishers to disturb the flanks. 

TO DEPLOY FORWARD. 

To deploy a company forward at a halt, or in 
march, on the left file of the first platoon holding the 
second platoon in reserve, the command will be : 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 137 

1. First platoon, as skirmishers. 2. On the left file, 
take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the first command, the second and third lieu- 
tenants will place themselves rapidly two paces 
behind the centers of the right and left sections of 
the first platoon; the fifth sergeant will move one 
pace in front of the center of the first platoon, and 
will place himself between the two sections in the 
front rank as soon as the movement begins; the 
fourth sergeant will place himself on the left of the 
front rank of the same platoon, as soon as he can pass. 
The captain will indicate to this sergeant the point on 
which he wishes him to direct his march. The first 
lieutenant, placing himself before the center of the 
second platoon, will command : 

Second platoon backward — MARCH. 

At this command, the second platoon will step three 
paces to the rear, so as to unmask the first flank of 
the first platoon. It will then be halted by its chief, 
and the second sergeant will place himself on the 
left, and the third sergeant on the right flank of this 
platoon. 

At the command march, the left group of four men, 
conducted by the fourth sergeant, will direct itself 
on the point indicated ; all the other groups of fours 
throwing forward briskly the left shoulder, will move 
diagonally to the front in double quick time, so as to 
gain to the right the space of twenty paces, which 
shall be the distance between each group and that 
immediately on its left. When the second group from 
the left shall arrive on a line with, and twenty paces 
from the first, it will march straight to the front, con- 
forming to the gait and direction of the first, keeping 



138 RIFJ.E AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

constantly on the same alignment and at twenty 
paces from it. The third group, and all others, will 
conform to what has just been prescribed for the sec- 
ond ; they will arrive successively on the line. The 
right guide will arrive with the last group. 

The left guide having reached the point where the 
left of the line should rest, the captain will command 
the skirmishers to halt; the men composing each 
group of fours will then immediately deploy at rive 
paces from each other, and to the right and left of the 
front rank man of the even file in each group, the 
rear rank men placing themselves on the left of their 
file leaders. If any groups be not in line at the com- 
mand halt, they will move up rapidly, conforming to 
what has just been prescribed. 

If, during the deployment, the line should be fired 
upon by the enemy, the captain may cause the groups 
of fours to deploy, as they gain their proper dis- 
tances. 

The line being formed, the non-commissioned offi- 
cers on the right, left and center of the platoon, will 
place themselves ten paces in rear of the line, and 
opposite the positions they respectively occupied. 
The chiefs of sections will promptly rectify any irreg- 
ularities, and then place themselves twenty-five or 
thirty paces in rear of the center of their sections, 
each having with him four men taken from the re- 
serve, and also a bugler, who will repeat, if necessary, 
the signals sounded by the captain. 

Skirmishers should be particularly instructed to 
take advantage of any cover which the ground may 
offer, and should lie flat on the ground whenever such 
a movement is necessary to protect them from the fire 
of the enemy. Regularity in the alignment should 
yield to this important advantage. 

"When the movement begins, the first lieutenant 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 139 

will face the second platoon about, and march it 
promptly, and by the shortest line, to about one hun- 
dred and fifty paces in rear of the center of the line. 
He will hold it always at this distance, unless ordered 
to the contrary. 

The reserve will conform itself to all the movements 
of the line. This rule is general. 

Light troops will carry their bayonets habitually 
in the scabbard, and this rule applies equally to the 
skirmishers and the reserve ; whenever bayonets are 
required to be fixed, a particular signal will be given. 
The captain will give a general superintendence to 
the whole deployment, and then promptly place him- 
self about eighty paces in rear of the center of the 
line. He will have with him a bugler and four men, 
taken from the reserve. 

The deployment may be made on the right or the 
center of the platoon, by the same commands, sub- 
stituting the indication right or center, for that of 
left file. 

The deployment on the right or the center will be 
made according to the principles prescribed above ; in 
this latter case, the center of the platoon will be 
marked by the right group of fours in the second sec- 
tion ; the fifth sergeant will place himself on the right 
of this group, and serve as the guide of the platoon 
during the deployment. 

In whatever manner the deployment be made, on 
the right, left, or center, the men in each group of 
fours will always deploy at five paces from each other, 
and upon the front rank man of the even numbered 
file. The deployments will habitually be made at 
twenty paces interval ; but if a greater interval be 
required, it will be indicated in the command. 

If a company be thrown out as skirmishers, so near 
the main body as to render a reserve unnecessary, the 



140 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

entire company will be extended in the same man- 
ner, and according to the same principles, as for the 
deployment of a platoon. In this case, the third lieu- 
tenant will command the fourth section, and a non- 
commissioned officer designated for that purpose, the 
second section ; the fifth sergeant will act as a center 
guide ; the file-closers will place themselves ten paces 
in rear of the line, and opposite their places in line of 
battle. The first and second lieutenant will each 
have a bugler near him. 

TO DEPLOY BY THE FLANK. 

The company being at a halt, when the captain 
shall wish to deploy it by the flank, holding the first 
platoon in reserve, he will command : 

1. Second platoon, as skirmishers. 2. By the right 

flank, take intervals. 3. MARCH {or double quick 

march.) 

At the first command, the first and third lieuten- 
ants will place themselves, respectively, two paces 
behind the centers of the first and second sections of 
the second platoon ; the fifth sergeant will place him- 
self one pace in front of the center of the second pla- 
toon ; the third sergeant, as soon as he can pass, will 
place himself on the right of the front rank of the 
same platoon. The captain will indicate to him the 
point on which he wishes him to direct his march. 
The chief of the first platoon will execute what has 
been prescribed for the chief of the second platoon, 
before described. The fourth sergeant will place him- 
self on the left flank of the reserve, the first sergeant 
will remain on the right flank. 

At the second command, the first and third lieu- 
tenants will place themselves two paces behind the 
left group of their respective sections. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 141 

At the command march, the second platoon will 
face to the right, and commence the movement ; the 
left group of fours will stand fast, but will deploy as 
soon as there is room on its right, conforming to what 
has been prescribed before ; the third sergeant will 
place himself on the left of the right group, to con- 
duct it ; the second group will halt at twenty paces 
from the one on its left, the third group at twenty 
paces from the second, and so on to the right. As 
the groups halt, they will face to the enemy, and de- 
ploy as has been explained for the left group. 

The chiefs of sections will pay particular attention 
to the successive deployments of the groups, keeping 
near the group about to halt, so as to rectify any 
errors which may be committed. When the deploy- 
ment is completed, they will place themselves thirty 
paces in rear of the center of their sections, as has 
been heretofore prescribed. The non-commissioned 
officers will also place themselves as previously in- 
dicated. 

As soon as the movement commences, the chief of 
the first platoon, causing it to face about, will move 
it as indicated heretofore. 

The deployment may be made by the left flank ac- 
cording to the same principles, substituting left flank 
for right flank. 

If the captain should wish to deploy the company 
upon the center of one of the platoons, he will com- 
mand : 

1. Second platoon, as skirmishers. 2. By the right 
and left flanks, take intervals. 3. MARCH (or 
double quick march.) 

At the first command, the officers and non-com- 
missioned officers will conform to what has been 
prescribed heretofore. 



142 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

At the second command, the first lieutenant will 
place himself behind the left group of the right sec- 
tion of the second platoon, the third lieutenant be- 
hind the right group of the left section of the same 
platoon. 

At the command march, the right section will face 
to the right, the left section will face to the left, 
the group on the right of this latter section will 
stand fast. The two sections will move off in op- 
posite directions ; the third sergeant will place him- 
self on the left of the right file to conduct it, the 
second sergeant on the right of the left file. The two 
groups nearest that which stands fast, will each halt 
at twenty paces from this group, and each of the other 
groups will halt at twenty paces from the group which 
is in rear of it. Each group will deploy as heretofore 
prescribed. 

The first and third lieutenants will direct the move- 
ment, holding themselves always abreast of the group 
which is about to halt. 

The captain can cause the deployment to be made 
on any named group whatsoever ; in this case, the 
fifth sergeant will place himself before the group in- 
dicated, and the deployment will be made according 
to the principles heretofore prescribed. 

The entire company may be also deployed, accord- 
ing to the same principles. 

TO EXTEND INTERVALS. 

This movement, which is employed to extend a 
line of skirmishers, will be executed according to the 
principles prescribed for deployments. 

If it be supposed that the line of skirmishers is at 
a halt, and that the captain wishes to extend it to the 
left, he will command: 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 143 

1. By the left flank (so many paces) extend intervals. 
2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command march, the group on the right 
will stand fast, all the other groups will face to the 
left, and each group will extend its interval to the 
prescribed distance by the means heretofore indi- 
cated. 

The men of the same group will continue to pre- 
serve between each other the distance of five paces, 
unless the nature of the ground should render it ne- 
cessary that they should close nearer, in order to 
keep in sight of each other. The intervals refer to 
the spaces between the groups, and not to the dis- 
tances between the men in each group. The intervals 
will be taken from the right or left man of the neigh- 
boring group. 

If the line of skirmishers be marching to the front, 
and the captain should wish to extend it to the right, 
he will command : 

1. On the left group (so many paces) extend intervals. 
2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

The left group, conducted by the guide, will con- 
tinue to march on the point of direction ; the other 
groups throwing forward the left shoulder, and taking 
the double quick step, will open their intervals to the 
prescribed distance, by the means indicated hereto- 
fore, conforming also to what is prescribed. 

Intervals may be extended on the center of the 
line, according to the same principles. 

If in extending intervals, it be intended that one 
company or platoon should occupy a line which had 
been previously occupied by two, the men of the 
company or platoon which is to retire, will fall sue- 



144 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

cessively to the rear as they are relieved by the ex- 
tension of the intervals. 

TO CLOSE INTERVALS. 

This movement, like that of opening intervals, will 
be executed according to the principles prescribed for 
the deployments. 

If the line of skirmishers be halted, and the cap- 
tain should wish to close intervals to the left, he will 
command : 

1. By the left flank (so many paces) close intervals. 
2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command march, the left group will stand 
fast, the other groups will face to the left and close 
to the prescribed distance, each group facing to the 
enemy as it attains its proper distance. 

If the line be marching to the front, the captain 
will command : 

] . On the left group (so many paces) close intervals. 
2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

The left group, conducted by the guide, will con- 
tinue to move on in the direction previously indi- 
cated ; the other groups, advancing the right shoulder, 
will close to the left, until the intervals are reduced 
to the prescribed distance. 

Intervals may be closed on the right, or on the 
center, according to the same principles. 

When intervals are to be closed up, in order to 
reinforce a line of skirmishers, so as to cause two 
companies to cover the ground which had been pre- 
viously occupied by one, the new company will de- 
ploy so as to finish its movement at twenty paces in 
rear of the line it is to occupy, and the men will sue- 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 145 

Jssively move upon that line, as they shall be un- 
asked by the men of the old company. The re- 
serves of the two companies will unite behind the 
center of the line. 

TO RELIEVE A COMPANY DEPLOYED AS SKIRMISHERS. 

"When a company of skirmishers is to be relieved, 
the captain will be advised of the intention, which 
he will immediately communicate to his first and 
second lieutenants. 

The new company will execute its deployment for- 
ward, so as to finish the movement at about twenty 
paces in rear of the line. 

Arrived at this distance, the men of the new com- 
pany, by command of their captain, will advance 
rapidly a few paces beyond the old line and halt ; 
the new line being established, the old company will 
assemble on its reserve, taking care not to get into 
groups of fours until they are beyond the fire of the 
enemy. 

If the skirmishers to be relieved are marching in 
retreat, the company thrown out to relieve them will 
deploy by the flank, as before prescribed. The old 
skirmishers will continue to retire with order, and 
having passed the new line, they will form upon the 
reserve. 

TO ADVANCE IN LINE, AND TO RETREAT IN LINE. 

When a platoon or a company deployed as skir- 
mishers is marching by the front, the guide will be 
habitually in the center. No particular indication to 
this effect need be given in the commands, but if on 
the contrary, it be intended that the directing guide 
should be on the right, or left, the command guide- 
right, or guide left, will be given immediately after 
that of forward. 



146 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

The captain wishing the line of skirmishers to ad- 
vance, will command : 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH {or double quick march.) 

This command will be repeated with the greatest 
rapidity by the chiefs of sections, and in case of need, 
by the sergeants. This rule is general, whether the 
skirmishers march by the front or by the flank. 

At the first command, three sergeants will move 
briskly on the line, the first on the right, the second 
on the left, and the third in the center. 

At the command march, the line will move to the 
front, the guide charged with the direction will move 
on the point indicated to him, the skirmishers will 
hold themselves aligned on this guide, and preserve 
their intervals towards him. 

The chief of the sections will march immediately 
behind their sections, so as to direct their move- 
ments. 

The captain will give a general superintendence to 
the movement. 

When he shall wish to halt the skirmishers, he will 
command : 

HALT. 

At this command, briskly repeated, the line will 
halt. The chiefs of sections will promptly rectify 
any irregularity in the alignment and intervals, and 
after taking every possible advantage which the 
ground may offer for protecting the men, they, with 
the three sergeants in the line, will retire to their 
proper places in rear. 

The captain, wishing to march the skirmishers in 
retreat, will command : 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 141 

1. In retreat. 2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the first command, the three sergeants will 
move on the line as before prescribed. 

At the command march, the skirmishers will face 
about individually, and march to the rear, conform- 
ing to the principles before prescribed. 

The officers and sergeants will use every exertion 
to preserve order. 

To halt the skirmishers, marching in retreat, the 
captain will command : 

HALT. 

At this command, the skirmishers will halt, and 
immediately face to the front. 

The chiefs of sections and the three guides, will 
each conform himself to what is before prescribed. 

TO CHANGE DIRECTION. 

If the commander of a line of skirmishers shall 
wish to cause it to change direction to the right, he 
will command : 

1. Eight wheel. 2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command march, the right guide will mark 
time in his place ; the left guide will move in a circle 
to the right, and that he may properly regulate his 
movements, will occasionally cast his eyes to the 
right, so as to observe the direction of the line, and 
the nature of the ground to be passed over. The 
center guide will also march in a circle to the right, 
and in order to conform his movements to the gene- 
ral direction, will take care that his steps are only 
half the length of the steps of the guide on the left. 

The skirmishers will regulate the length of their 



148 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

steps by their distance from the marching flank, be- 
ing less as they approach the pivot, and greater as 
they are removed from it ; they will often look to the 
marching flank, so as to preserve the direction and 
their intervals. 

When the commander of the line shall wish to re- 
sume the direct march, he will command : 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the line will cease to 
wheel, and the skirmishers will move direct to the 
front ; the center guide will march on the point which 
will be indicated to him. 

If the captain should wish to halt the line, in place 
of moving it to the front, he will command : 

HALT. 

At this command, the line will halt. 

A change of direction to the left will be made ac- 
cording to the same principles, and by inverse means. 

A line of skirmishers marching in retreat, will 
change direction by the same means, and by the same 
commands, as a line marching in advance ; for ex- 
ample, if the captain should wish to refuse his left, 
now become the right, he will command: 

1. Left wheel 2. MARCH. 

At the command halt, the skirmishers will face to 
the enemy. 

But if, instead of halting the line, the captain should 
wish to continue to march it in retreat, he will, when 
he judges the line has wheeled sufficiently, com- 
mand : 

1. In retreat. 2. MARCH. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 149 

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK. 

The captain, wishing the skirmishers to march by 
the right flank, will command : 

1. By the right flank. 2. MARCH {or double quick 
march.) 

At the first command, the three sergeants will 
place themselves on the line. 

At the command march, the skirmishers will face 
to the right and move off ; the right guide will place 
himself by the side of the leading man on the right to 
conduct him, and will march on the point indicated ; 
each skirmisher will take care to follow exactly in 
the direction of the one immediately preceding him, 
and to preserve his distance. 

The skirmishers may be marched by the left flank, 
according to the same principles, and by the same 
commands, substituting left for right ; the left guide 
will place himself by the side of the leading man to 
conduct him. 

If the skirmishers be marching by the flank, and 
the captain should wish to halt them, he will com- 
mand : 

HALT. 

At this command, the skirmishers will halt and 
face to the enemy. The officers and sergeants will 
conform to what has been heretofore prescribed. 

The reserve should execute all the movements of 
the line, and be held always about one hundred and 
fifty paces from it, so as to be in position to second 
its operations. 

When the chief of the reserve shall wish to march 
it in advance, he will command : 

1. Platoon forward. 2. Guide left. 3. MARCH. 



150 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

If he should wish to march it in retreat, he will 
command : 

1. In retreat 2. MARCH. 3. Guide right. 

At the command halt, it will re-face to the enemy. 

The men should be made to understand that the 
signals or commands, such as forward, mean that the 
skirmishers shall march on the enemy; in retreat, 
that they shall retire ; and to the right or left flank, 
that the men must face to the right or left, whatever 
may be their position. 

If the skirmishers be marching by the flank, and 
the captain should wish to change direction to the 
right, (or left,) he will command : 

1. By file right (or left.) 2. MARCH. 

These movements will also be executed by the sig- 
nals as heretofore prescribed. 

THE FIRINGS. 
Skirmishers will fire either at a halt or marching. 

TO FIRE AT A HALT. 

To cause this fire to be executed, the captain will 
command : 

Commence — FIRLN Gr. 

At this command, briskly repeated, the men of the 
front rank will commence firing; they will reload 
rapidly, and hold themselves in readiness to fire again. 
During this time the men of the rear rank will come 
to a ready, and as soon as their respective file leaders 
have loaded, they will also fire and reload. The men 
of each file will thus continue the firing, conforming 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 151 

to this principle, that the one or the other shall al- 
ways have his piece loaded. 

Light troops should be always calm, so as to aim 
with accuracy ; they should, moreover, endeavor to 
estimate correctly the distances between themselves 
and the enemy to be hit, and thus be enabled to 
deliver their fire with the greater certainty of suc- 
cess. 

Skirmishers will not remain in the same place 
whilst reloading, unless protected by accidents in the 
ground. 

TO FIRE MARCHING. 

This fire will be executed by the same commands 
as the fire at a halt. 

At the command commence firing, if the line be ad- 
vancing, the front rank man of every file will halt, 
fire, and reload before throwing himself forward. The 
rear rank man of the same file will continue to march, 
and after passing ten or twelve paces beyond his 
front rank man, will halt, come to a ready, select his 
object, and fire when his front rank man has loaded ; 
the fire will thus continue to be executed by each 
file ; the skirmishers will keep united, and endeavor, 
as much as possible, to preserve the general direction 
of the alignment. 

If the line be marching in retreat, at the command 
commence firing, the front rank man of every file will 
halt, face to the enemy, fire, and then reload whilst 
moving to the rear ; the rear rank man of the same 
file will continue to march, and halt ten or twelve 
paces beyond Kis front rank man, face about, come to 
a ready, and fire, when his front rank man has passed 
him in retreat and loaded ; after which, he will move 
to the rear and reload ; the front rank man in his 
turn, after marching briskly to the rear, will halt at 



152 KTFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

ten or twelve paces from the rear rank, face to the 
enemy, load his piece and fire, conforming to what 
has just been prescribed ; the firing will thus be con- 
tinued. 

If the company be marching by the right flank, at 
the command, commence firing, the front rank man of 
every file will face to the enemy, step one pace for- 
ward, halt, and fire ; the rear rank man will continue 
to move forward. As soon as the front rank man has 
fired, he will place himself briskly behind his rear 
rank man and reload whilst marching. When he has 
loaded, the rear rank man will, in his turn, step one 
pace forward, halt, and fire, and returning to the 
ranks, will place himself behind his front rank man ; 
the latter, in his turn, will act in the same manner, 
observing the same principles. At the command, 
cease firing, the men of the rear rank will retake their 
original positions, if not already there. 

If the company be marching by the left flank, the 
fire will be executed according to the same princi- 
ples, but in this case, it will be the rear rank men 
who will fire first. 

The following rules will be observed in the cases 
to which they apply. 

If the line be firing at a halt, or whilst marching 
by the flank, at the command, 

Forward— MARCH, 

it will be the men whose pieces are loaded, without 
regard to the particular rank to which they belong, 
who will move to the front. Those men whose pieces 
have been discharged, will remain in their places to 
load them before moving forward, and the firing will 
be continued agreeably to the principles heretofore 
prescribed. 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 153 

If the line be firing either at a halt, advancing, or 
whilst marching by the flank, at the command, 

In fttreat— MARCH, 

the men whose pieces are loaded will remain faced 
to the enemy, and will fire in this position ; the men 
whose pieces are discharged will retreat loading 
them, and the fire will be continued agreeably to the 
principles heretofore prescribed. 

If the line of skirmishers be firing either at a halt, 
advancing, or in retreat, at the command, 

By the right (or left) flarik— -MARCH, 

the men whose pieces are loaded will step one pace 
out of the general alignment, face to the enemy, and 
fire in this position ; the men whose pieces are un- 
loaded will face to the right (or left) and march in the 
direction indicated. The men who stepped out of 
the ranks will place themselves immediately after 
firing, upon the general direction, and in rear of their 
front or rear rank men, as the case may be. The fire 
will be continued according to the principles hereto- 
fore prescribed. 

Skirmishers will be habituated to load their pieces 
whilst marching ; but they will be enjoined to halt 
always an instant, when in the act of charging car- 
tridge, and priming. 

They should be practised to fire and load kneeling, 
lying down and sitting, and much liberty should be 
allowed in these exercises, in order that they may be 
executed in the manner found to be most convenient. 
Skirmishers should be cautioned not to forget that, 
in whatever position they may load, it is important 
that the piece should be placed upright before ram- 



154 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

ming, in order that the entire charge of powder may 
reach the bottom of the bore. 

In commencing the fire, the men of the same rank 
should not all fire at once, and the men of the same 
file should be particular that one or the other of them 
be always loaded. 

In retreating, the officer commanding the skirmish- 
ers should seize on every advantage which the ground 
may present, for arresting the enemy as long as 



At the signal to cease firing, the captain will see 
that the order is promptly obeyed ; but the men who 
may not be loaded, will load. If the line be march- 
ing, it will continue the movement ; but the man of 
each file who happens to be in front, will wait until 
the man in rear shall be abreast with him. 

If a line of skirmishers be firing advancing, at the 
command halt, the line will re-form upon the skirm- 
ishers who are in front ; when the line is retreating, 
upon the skirmishers who are in rear. 

Officers should watch with the greatest possible 
vigilance over a line of skirmishers ; in battle, they 
should neither carry a rifle or fowling piece. In all 
the firings, they, as well as the sergeants, should see 
that order and silence are preserved, and that the 
skirmishers do not wander imprudently ; they should 
especially caution them to be calm and collected ; not 
to fire until they distinctly perceive the objects at 
which they aim, and are sure that those objects are 
within proper range. Skirmishers should take ad- 
vantage promptly, and with intelligence, of all shelter, 
and of all accidents of the ground, to conceal them- 
selves from the view of the enemy, and to protect 
themselves from his fire. It may often happen, that 
intervals are momentarily lost when several men near 
each other find a common shelter ; but when they 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 155 

quit this position, they should immediately resume 
their intervals and their places in line, so that they 
may not, by crowding, needlessly expose themselves 
to the fire of the enemy. 

THE RALLY. 

TO FORM COLUMN. 

A company deployed as skirmishers, is rallied in 
order to oppose the enemy with better success ; the 
rallies are made at a run, and with bayonets fixed ; 
when ordered to rally, the skirmishers fix bayonets 
without command. 

There are several ways of rallying, which the 
chief of the line will adopt according to circum- 
stances. 

If the line, marching or at a halt, be merely dis- 
turbed by scattered horsemen, it will not be necessary 
to fall back on the reserve, but the captain will cause 
bayonets to be fixed. If the horsemen should, how- 
ever, advance to charge the skirmishers, the captain 
will command, rally by fours. The line will halt if 
marching, and the four men of each group will exe- 
cute this rally in the following manner: the front 
rank man of the even numbered file will take the po- 
sition of guard against cavalry ; the rear rank man of 
the odd numbered file will also take the position of 
guard against cavalry, turning his back to him, his 
right foot thirteen inches from the right foot of the 
former, and parallel to it ; the front rank man of the 
odd file, and the rear rank man of the even file, will 
also place themselves back to back, taking a like po- 
sition, and between the two men already established, 
facing to the right and left ; the right feet of the four 
men will be brought together, forming a square, and 
serving for mutual support. The four men in each 



156 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

group will come to a ready, fire as occasion may offer, 
and load without moving their feet. 

The captain and chiefs of sections will each cause 
the four men who constitute his guard to form square, 
the men separating so as to enable him and the 
bugler to place themselves in the center. The three 
sergeants will each promptly place himself in the 
group nearest him in the line of skirmishers. 

Whenever the captain shall judge these squares 
too weak, but should wish to hold his position by 
strengthening his line, he will command : 

Rally oy Sections. 

At this command, the chiefs of sections will move 
rapidly on the center group of their respective sec- 
tions, or on any other interior group whose position 
might offer a shelter, or other particular advantage ; 
the skirmishers will collect rapidly at a run on this 
group, and without distinction of numbers. The men 
composing the group on which the formation is made, 
will immediately form square, as heretofore explained, 
and elevate their pieces, the bayonets uppermost, in 
order to indicate the point on which the rally is to be 
made. The other skirmishers, as they arrive, will 
occupy and fill the open angular spaces between 
these four men, and successively rally around this 
first nucleus, and in such manner as to form rapidly 
a compact circle. The skirmishers will take as they 
arrive, the position of charge bayonet, the point of 
the bayonet more elevated, and will cock their pieces 
in this position. The movement concluded, the two 
exterior ranks will fire as occasion may offer, and 
load without moving their feet. 

The captain will move rapidly with his guard, 
wherever he may judge his presence most necessary. 

The officers and sergeants will be particular to ob- 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 151 

serve that the rally is made in silence, and with 
promptitude and order ; that some pieces in each of 
their sub-divisions be at all times loaded, and that 
the fire is directed on those points only where it will 
be most effective. 

If the reserve should be threatened, it will form 
into a circle around its chief. 

If the captain, or commander of a line of skirmish- 
ers formed of many platoons, should judge that the 
rally by section does not offer sufficient resistance, he 
will cause the rally by platoons to be executed, and 
for this purpose, will command : 

Rally by Platoons. 

This movement will be executed according to the 
same principles, and by the same means, as the rally 
by sections. The chiefs of platoon will conform to 
what has been prescribed for the chiefs of section. 

The captain wishing to rally the skirmishers on 
the reserve, will command : 

Bally on the Reserve. 

At this command, the captain will move briskly on 
the reserve ; the officer who commands it will take 
immediate steps to form square ; for this purpose, he 
will cause the half-sections on the flanks to be thrown 
perpendicularly to the rear ; he will order the men 
to come to a ready. 

The skirmishers of each section, taking the run, 
will form rapidly into groups, and upon that man of 
each group who is nearest the center of the sec- 
tion. These groups will direct themselves diagonally 
towards each other, and in such manner as to form 
into sections with the greatest possible rapidity while 
moving to the rear ; the officers and sergeants will 



158 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

see that this formation is made in proper order, and 
the chiefs will direct their sections upon the reserve, 
taking care to unmask it to the right and left. As 
the skirmishers arrive, they will continue and com- 
plete the formation of the square begun by the re- 
serve, closing in rapidly upon the latter, without 
regard to their places in line ; they will come to a 
ready without command, and fire upon the enemy ; 
which will also be done by the reserve as soon as it 
is unmasked by the skirmishers. 

If a section should be closely pressed by cavalry 
while retreating, its chief will command halt ; at this 
command, the men will form rapidly into a compact 
circle around the officer, who will re-form his section 
and resume the march, the moment he can do so 
with safety. 

The formation of the square in a prompt and effi- 
cient manner, requires coolness and activity on the 
part of both officers and sergeants. 

The captain will also profit by every movement of 
respite which the enemy's cavalry may leave him ; 
as soon as he can, he will endeavor to place himself 
beyond the reach of their charges, either by gaining 
a position where he may defend himself with advan- 
tage, or by returning to the corps to which he be- 
longs. For this purpose, being in square, he will 
cause the company to break into column by platoons 
at half-distance ; to this effect, he will command : 

1. Form column. 2. MARCH. 
At the command march, each platoon will dress on 
its center, and the platoon which was facing to the 
rear will face about without command. The guides 
will place themselves on the right and left of their 
respective platoons, those of the second platoon will 
place themselves at half-distance from those of the 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 159 

first, counting from the rear rank. These disposi- 
tions being made, the captain can move the column 
in whatever direction he may judge proper. 

If he wishes to march it in retreat, he will com- 
mand: 

1. In retreat 2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the command march, the column will immedi- 
ately face by the rear rank, and move off in the op- 
posite direction. As soon as the column is in motion, 
the captain will command : 

3. Guide right (or left.) 

He will indicate the direction to the leading guide ; 
the guides will march at their proper distances, and 
the men will keep aligned. 

If again threatened by cavalry, the captain will 
command : 

1. Form square. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the column will halt; the 
first platoon will face about briskly, and the outer 
half-sections of each platoon will be thrown perpen- 
dicularly to the rear, so as to form the second and 
third fronts of the square. The officers and sergeants 
will promptly rectify any irregularities which may be 
committed. 

If he should wish to march the column in advance, 
the captain will command : 

1. Form column. 2. MARCH. 

Which will be executed as heretofore prescribed : 
The column being formed, the captain will com- 
mand: 



160 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

1. Forward. 2. MARCH (or double quick march.) 
3. Guide left (or right.) 

At the second command, the column will move for- 
ward, and at the third command, the men will take 
the touch of elbows to the side of the guide. 

If the captain should wish the column to gain 
ground to the right or left, he will do so by rapid 
wheels to the side opposite the guide, and for this 
purpose, will change the guide whenever it may be 
necessary. 

If a company be in column by platoon, at half-dis- 
tance, right in front, the captain can deploy the first 
platoon as skirmishers by the means already ex- 
plained ; but if it should be his wish to deploy the 
second platoon forward on the center file, leaving the 
first platoon in reserve, he will command : 

1. Second platoon, as skirmishers. 2. On the center 
file, take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick 
march.) 

At the first command, the chief of the first platoon 
will caution his platoon to stand fast ; the chiefs of 
sections of the second platoon will place themselves 
before the center of their sections ; the fifth sergeant 
will place himself one pace in front of the center of 
the second platoon. 

At the second command, the chief of the right sec- 
tion, second platoon, will command : 

Section right face ; 
The chief of the left section : 

Section left face. 
At the command march, these sections will move 






RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 161 

off briskly in opposite directions, and having un- 
masked the first platoon, the chiefs of sections will 
respectively command: 

By the left flank— MARCH, 
And 

By the right flank — MARCH. 

As soon as these sections arrive on the alignment 
of the first platoon, they will command : 

As skirmishers — MARCH. 

The groups will then deploj- according to prescribed 
principles, on the right group of the left section, which 
will be directed by the fifth sergeant on the point in- 
dicated. 

If the captain should wish the deployment made 
by the flank, the second platoon will be moved to the 
front by the means above stated, and halted after 
passing some steps beyond the alignment of the first 
platoon ; the deployment will then be made by the 
flank according to the principles prescribed. 

When one or more platoons are deployed as skirm- 
ishers, and the captain should wish to rally them on 
the battalion, he will command : 

Rally on the battalion. 

At this command, the skirmishers and the reserve, 
no matter what position the company to which they 
belong may occupy in order of battle, will rapidly 
unmask the front of the battalion, directing them- 
selves in a run towards its nearest flank, and then 
form in its rear. 

As soon as the skirmishers have passed beyond the 
line of file-closers, the men will take the quick step, 
and the chief of each platoon or section will re-form 
6 



162 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

his sub-division, and place it in column behind the 
wing on which it is rallied, and at ten paces from the 
rank of file closers. These sub-divisions will not be 
moved except by order of the commander of the bat- 
talion, who may, if he thinks proper, throw them into 
line of battle at the extremities of the line, or in the 
intervals between the battalions. 

If many platoons shall be united behind the same 
wing of a battalion, or behind any shelter whatso- 
ever, they should be formed always into close col- 
umn, or into column at half distance. 

When the battalion, covered by a company of 
skirmishers, shall be formed into square, the platoons 
and sections of the covering company will be directed 
by their chiefs to the rear of the square, which will 
be opened at the angles to receive the skirmishers, 
who will be then formed into close column by pla- 
toons in rear of the first front of the square. 

If circumstances should prevent the angles of the 
square from being opened, the skirmishers will throw 
themselves at the feet of the front rank men, the 
right knee on the ground, the butt of the piece rest- 
ing on the thigh, the bayonet in a threatening posi- 
tion. A part may also place themselves about the 
angles, where they can render good service by de- 
fending the sectors without fire. 

If the battalion on which the skirmishers are rallied 
be in column ready to form square, the skirmishers 
will be formed into close column by platoon, in rear 
of the center of the third division, and at the com- 
mand, 

Form square — MARCH, 
they will move forward and close on the buglers. 

When skirmishers have been rallied by platoon or 
section behind the wings of a battalion, and it be 
wished to deploy them again to the front, they will 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 163 

be marched by the flank towards the intervals on the 
wings, and be then deployed so as to cover the front 
of the battalion. 

When platoons or sections, placed in the interior 
of squares or columns are to be deployed, they will 
be marched out by the flanks, and then thrown for- 
ward, as is heretofore prescribed ; as soon as they 
shall have unmasked the column or square, they will 
be deployed, the one on the right, the other on the 
left file. 

THE ASSEMBLY. 

A company deployed as skirmishers will be as- 
sembled when there is no longer danger of its being- 
disturbed ; the assembly will be made habitually in 
quick time. 

The captain wishing to assemble the skirmishers 
on the reserve, will command : 

Assemble on the reserve. 

At this command, the skirmishers will assemble by 
groups of fours ; the front rank men will place them- 
selves behind their rear rank men ; and each group 
of fours will direct itself on the reserve, where each 
will take its proper place in the ranks. "When the 
company is re-formed, it will re-join the battalion to 
which it belongs. 

It may be also proper to assemble the skirmishers 
on the center, or on the right or left of the line, either 
marching or at a halt. 

If the captain should wish to assemble them on the 
center while marching, he will command : 

Assemble on the center. 
■ At this command, the center guide will continue 
to march directly to the front on the point indicated ; 



164 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

the front rank man of the directing file will follow the 
guide, and be covered by his rear rank man; the 
other two comrades of this group, and likewise those 
on their left, will march diagonally, advancing the 
left shoulder and accelerating the gait, so as to re- 
form the groups while drawing nearer and nearer the 
directing file .; the men of the right section will unite 
in the same manner into groups, and then upon the 
directing file, throwing forward the right shoulder. 
As they successively unite on the center, the men will 
bring their pieces to the right shoulder. 

To assemble on the right or left file will be exe- 
cuted according to the same principles. 

The assembly of a line marching in retreat will 
also be executed according to the same principles, 
the front rank men marching behind their rear rank 
men. 

To assemble the line of skirmishers at a halt, and 
on the line they occupy, the captain will give the 
same commands; the skirmishers will face to the 
right or left, according as they should march by the 
right or left flank, re-form the groups while march- 
ing, and thus arrive on the file which served as the 
point of formation. As they successively arrive, the 
skirmishers will support arms. 

TO DEPLOY A BATTALION AS SKIRMISHERS. 
AND TO RALLY THIS BATTALION. 

TO DEPLOY THE BATTALION AS SKIRMISHERS. 

A battalion being in line of battle, if the commander 
should wish to deploy it on the right of the sixth 
company, holding the three right companies in re- 
serve, he will signify his intention to the lieutenant- 
colonel and adjutant, and also to the major, who will 
be directed to take charge of the reserve. He will 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 165 

point out to the lieutenant-colonel the direction he 
wishes to give the line, as well as the point where 
he wishes the right of the sixth company to rest, and 
to the commander of the reserve the place he may 
wish it established. 

The lieutenant-colonel will move rapidly in front 
of the right of the sixth company, and the adjutant 
in front of the left of the same company. The com- 
mander of the reserve will dispose of it in the manner 
to be hereinafter indicated. 

The colonel will command : 

1. First (or second) platoons, as skirmishers. 2. On 

the right of the sixth company, take intervals. 

3. MARCH (or double quick march.) 

At the second command, the captains of the fifth 
and sixth companies will prepare to deploy the first 
platoons of their respective companies, the sixth on 
its right, the fifth on its left file. 

The captain of the fourth company will face it to 
the right, and the captains of the seventh and eighth 
companies will face their respective companies to the 
left. 

At the command march, the movement will com- 
mence. The platoons of the fifth and sixth com- 
panies will deploy forward ; the right guide of the 
sixth will march on the point which will be indicated 
to him by the lieutenant-colonel. 

The company which has faced to the right, and 
also the companies which have faced to the left, will 
march straight forward. The fourth company will 
take an interval of one hundred paces counting from 
the left of the fifth, and its chief will deploy its first 
platoon on its left file. The seventh and eighth com- 
panies will each take an interval of one hundred 
paces, counting from the first file of the company, 



166 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

which is immediately on its right ; and the chiefs of 
these companies will afterwards deploy their first 
platoons on the right file. 

The guides who conduct the files on which the de- 
ployment is made, should be careful to direct them- 
selves towards the outer man of the neighboring 
company, already deployed as skirmishers ; or if the 
company has not finished its deployment, they will 
judge carefully the distance which may still be re- 
quired to place all these files in line, and will then 
march on the point thus marked out. The companies, 
as they arrive on the line, will align themselves on 
those already deployed. 

The lieutenant-colonel and adjutant will follow the 
deployment, the one on the right, the other on the 
left ; the movement concluded, they will place them- 
selves near the colonel. 

The reserves of the companies will be established 
in echelon in the following manner : the reserve of 
the sixth company will be placed one hundred and 
fifty paces in rear of the right of this company ; the 
reserves of the fourth and fifth companies united, op- 
posite the center of their line of skirmishers and 
thirty paces in advance of the reserve of the sixth 
company; the reserves of the seventh and eighth 
companies, also united, opposite the center of their 
line of skirmishers, and thirty paces further to the 
rear than the reserve of the sixth company. 

The major commanding the companies composing 
the reserve, on receiving an order from the colonel to 
that effect, will march these companies thirty paces 
to the rear, and will then ploy them into column by 
company, at half distance ; after which, he will con- 
duct the column to the point which shall have been 
indicated to him. 

The colonel will have a general superintendence of 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 167 

the movement; and when it is finished, will move to 
a point in rear of the line, whence his view may best 
embrace all the parts, in order to | direct their move- 
ments. 

If, instead of deploying forward, it be desired to 
deploy by the flank, the sixth and fifth companies 
will be moved to the front ten or twelve paces, halted, 
and deployed by the flank, the one on the right, the 
other on the left file, by the means already indicated. 
Each of the other companies will be marched by the 
flank ; and as soon as the last file of the company, 
next towards the direction, shall have taken its in- 
terval, it will be moved upon the line established by 
the fifth and sixth companies, halted, and deployed. 

In the preceding example, it has been supposed 
that the battalion was in order of battle; but if in 
column, it would be deployed as skirmishers by the 
same commands and according to the same prin- 
ciples. 

If the deployment is to be made forward, the di- 
recting company, as soon as it is unmasked, will be 
moved ten or twelve paces in front of the head of the 
column, and will be then deployed on the file indi- 
cated. Each of the other companies will take its in- 
terval to the right or left, and deploy as soon as it is 
taken. 

If the deployment is to be made by the flank, the 
directing company will be moved in the same man- 
ner to the front, as soon as it is unmasked, and will 
then be halted and deployed by the flank on the file 
indicated. Each of the other companies will be 
marched by the flank, and when its interval is taken, 
will be moved on the line, halted, and deployed as 
soon as the company next towards the direction shall 
-have finished its deployment. 

It has been prescribed to place the reserves in 



168 RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

echelon, in order that they may, in the event of a 
rally, be able to protect themselves without injuring 
each other ; and the reserves of two contiguous com- 
panies have been united, in order to diminish the 
number of the echelons, and to increase their ca- 
pacity for resisting cavalry. 

The echelons, in the example given, descend from 
right to left, but they may, on an indication from the 
colonel to that effect, be posted on the same principle, 
so as to descend from left to right. 

When the color-company is to be deployed as 
skirmishers, the color, without its guard, will be de- 
tached, and remain with the battalion reserve. 

THE RALLY. 

The colonel may cause all the various movements 
prescribed for a company, to be executed by the bat- 
talion, and by the same commands and the same sig- 
nals. When he wishes to rally the battalion, he will 
cause the rally on the battalion to be sounded, and 
will so dispose his reserve as to protect this move- 
ment. 

The companies deployed as skirmishers will be 
rallied in squares on their respective reserves ; each 
reserve of two contiguous companies will form the 
first front of the square, throwing to the rear the sec- 
tions on the flanks ; the skirmishers who arrive first 
will complete the lateral fronts, and the last the 
fourth front. The officers and sergeants will super- 
intend the rally, and as fast as the men arrive, they 
will form them into two ranks, without regard to 
hight, and cause them to face outwards. 

The rally being effected, the commanders of squares 
will profit by any interval of time the cavalry may 
allow for putting them in safety, either by marching 
upon the battalion reserve, or by seizing an advan- 



RIFLE AND LIGHT INFANTRY. 169 

tageous position; to this end, each of the squares 
will be formed into column, and march in this order ; 
and if threatened anew, it will halt, and again form 
itself into square. 

As the companies successively arrive near the bat- 
talion-reserve, each will re-form as promptly as possi- 
ble, and without regard to designation or number, 
take place in the column next in rear of the com- 
panies already in it. 

The battalion reserve will also form square, if itself 
threatened by cavalry, In this case, the companies 
in marching towards it will place themselves promptly 
in the sectors without fire, and thus march on the 
squares. 



CAVALRY. 



The School of the Trooper and Squadron Dis- 
mounted will, in all cases, conform to what is pre- 
scribed for Light Infantry and Rifle Drill, in Squad 
and Company, in this work. 

MANUAL FOR THE SABER. 
Draw;— SABER. 

At the command draw, turn the piece slightly to 
the left, without deranging the position of the body ; 
unhook the saber with the left hand, and bring the 
hilt to the front; run the right wrist through the 
sword-knot, seize the gripe, draw the blade six inches 
out of the scabbard, pressing the scabbard against 
the thigh with the left hand, which seizes it at the 
upper ring, and turn the head to the front. 

At the command saber, draw the saber quickly, 
raising the arm to its full extent : carry the blade, 
the back of it, against the hollow of the right should- 
er, the wrist wresting on the hip, the little finger on 
the outside of the gripe. 

Present— SABER. 



CAVALRY. Ill 

At the command saber, carry the saber to the front, 
the arm half extended, the thumb opposite to, and 
six inches from, the neck, the blade perpendicular, 
the edge to the left, the thumb extended on the right 
side of the gripe, the little linger by the side of the 
others. 

Garry— SABER. 

At the command saber, carry the back of the blade 
against the hollow of the right shoulder, the wrist 
resting against the hip, the little finger on the outside 
of the gripe. 

Return— SABER. 

At the command return, execute the first motion 
of present saber. 

At the command saber, carry the wrist opposite to, 
and six inches from, the left shoulder : lower the 
blade and pass it across and along the left arm, the 
point to the rear ; turn the head slightly to the left, 
fixing the eyes on the opening of the scabbard ; re- 
turn the blade, free the wrist from the sword-knot, 
turn the head to the front, drop the right hand by 
the side, with the hilt to the rear. 

INSPECTION OF SABER. 
One time and seven motions. 

First Motion. At the command saber, execute the 
first time of draw. 

Second Motion. Execute the second time of draw 
saber. 

Third Motion. Execute present saber. 

Fourth Motion. Turn the wrist inwards, to show 
the other side of the blade. 

Fifth Motion. Execute co.rry saber. 

Sixth Motion. Execute first time of return saber. 



112 CAVALRY. 

Seventh Motion. Execute second time of return 
saber. 

SABER EXERCISE. 

In this lesson the square is composed of from eight 
to ten men, armed with sabers. They are placed in 
one rank nine feet from each other. The troopers 
being placed in this manner, the command will be : 

GUARD. 

At the command guard, carry the right foot two 
feet from the left, heels on the same line ; place the 
left hand, closed, six inches from the body, and as 
high as the elbow, the fingers towards the body, the 
little finger nearer than the thumb, (position of the 
bridle-hand); at the same time, place the right hand 
in tierce at the hight of, and three inches from, the 
left hand, the thumb extended on the back of the 
gripe, the little finger by the side of the others, the 
point of the saber inclined to the left, and two feet 
higher than the hand. 

£ e ^_MOULINET. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. At the command moulinet, extend 
the right arm to the front to its full length, the hand 
in tierce, and as high as the eyes. 

Second Motion. Lower the blade in rear of the left 
elbow, graze the horse's neck quickly, describing a 
circle from rear to front, and return to the position of 
guard. 

Right— MOULINET. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. At the command moulinet, extend 



CAVALRY. H3 

the right arm to the front to its full length, the hand 
in quarte, and as high as the eyes. 

Second Motion. Lower the blade in rear of the 
right elbow ; graze the horses neck quickly, describ- 
ing a circle from rear to front, return to the position 
of guard. 

Left and n^ftJ— MOULINET. Or, Right and left— 
MOULINET. 

At either of these commands, commence from the 
position of guard, and execute alternately as has 
been just prescribed. 

Rear— MOULDffET. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command moulinet, raise the 
arm to the right and rear to its full extent, the point 
of the saber upwards, the edge to the right, the thumb 
extended on the back of the gripe, the body slightly 
turned to the right. 

Second Motion. Describe a circle in rear from left 
to right, the hand extended from the body, and re- 
turn to the position of guard. 

In tierce— POINT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command point, raise the 
hand in tierce as high as the eyes, throw back the 
right shoulder, carrying the elbow to the rear, the 
point of the saber to the front, the edge upwards. 

Second Motion. Thrust to the front, extending the 
arm to its full length. 

Third Motion. Return to the position of guard. 



174 CAVALRY. 

In quarte— VOTRT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Lower the hand in quarte near the 
right hip, the thumb extended on the right side of 
the gripe, the point a little higher than the wrist. 

Second Motion. Thrust to the front, extending the 
arm to its full length. 

Third Motion. Return to the position of guard. 

Left—VOTST. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command point, turn the 
head to the left, draw back the hand in tierce, to- 
wards the right, at the hight of the neck, the edge 
upwards, the point directed to the left. 

Second Motion. Thrust to the left, extending the 
arm to its full length. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Right— -POINT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command point, turn the 
head to the right, carry the hand in quarte near the 
left breast, the edge upwards, the point directed to 
the right. 

Second Motion. Thrust to the right, extending the 
arm to its full length. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Rear— POINT. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command point, turn the 
head to the right and rear, bring the hand in quarte 



CAVALRY. 175 

opposite to the right shoulder, the arm half extended, 
the blade horizontal, the point to the rear, edge up- 
wards. 

Second Motion. Thrust to the rear. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Against infantry, left — POINT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the last command, point, turn 
the head to the left, raise the hand in tierce near the 
neck, the point of the saber directed at the bight of 
the breast of a man on foot. 

Second Motion. Thrust down in tierce. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Against infantry, right — POINT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. Turn the head to the right, carry 
the hand in quarte near the right hip, the point of 
the saber directed at the hight of the breast of a man 
on foot. 

Second Motion. Thrust in quarte. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Front— CUT. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command cut, raise the saber, 

the arm half extended, the hand a little above the 

head, the edge upwards, the point to the rear and 

higher than the head. 

Second Motion. Cut, extending the arm to its full 
length. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 



176 CAVALRY. 

Left— CUT. 

One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At the command cut, turn the head 
to the left, raise the saber, the arm extended to the 
right, the hand in quarte and as high as the head, the 
point higher than the hand. 

Second Motion. Cut diagonally to the left. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Eight— CUT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At this command, turn the head to 
the right, carry the hand opposite the left shoulder, 
the point of the saber upwards, the edge to the left. 

Second Motion. Extend the arm quickly to its full 
length, give a back-handed cut horizontally. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Bear— CUT. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At this command, turn the head to 
the right, throwing back the right shoulder ; carry 
the hand as high as, and opposite to, the left shoul- 
der, the saber perpendicular, the edge to the left. 

Second Motion. Extend the arm quickly to its full 
length, and give a back-handed cut horizontally to 
the rear. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Bight, in tierce and quarte — CUT. 

One time and four motions. 

First Motion. Execute the first motion of right 
cut. 



CAVALRY. 177 

Second Motion. Execute the second motion of 
i right cut. 

Third Motion. Turn the hand in quarte, and cut 
horizontally. 
Fourth Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Left, in tierce and quarte — CUT. 
One time and four motions. 

First Motion. Execute the first motion of left cut. 

Second Motion. Execute the second motion of 
left cut. 

Third Motion. Turn the hand in tierce, and cut 
horizontally. 

Fourth Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Rear, in tierce and quarte — CUT. 

First and Second Motions. Execute the first and 
second motions of rear cut. 

Third Motion. Turn the hand in quarte, and cut 
horizontally. 

Fourth Motion. Take the position of guard. 

In tierce— PARRY. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. At this command, carry the hand 
quickly a little to the front and right, the nails down- 
wards, without moving the elbow ; the point inclined 
to the front as high as the eyes, and in the direction 
of the right shoulder, the thumb extended on the 
back of the gripe and pressing against the guard. 

Second Motion. Take the position of guard. 



178 CAVALRY. 

In quarte — PARRY. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. At this command, turn the hand 
and carry it quickly to the front and left, the nails 
upwards, the edge to the left, the point inclined to 
the front as high as the eyes, and in the direction of 
the left shoulder; the thumb extended on the back 
of the gripe, and resting against the guard. 

Second Motion. Take the position of guard. 

For the head— FAKKY. 
One time and two motions. 

First Motion. At this command, raise the saber 
quickly above the head, the arm nearly extended, the 
edge upwards, the point to the left, and about six 
inches higher than the hand. 

Second Motion. Take the position of guard. 

Against infantry, right — PARRY. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At this command, turn the head to 
the right, throwing back the right shoulder, raise the 
saber, the arm extended to the right and rear, the 
point upwards, the hand in tierce, the thumb ex- 
tended on the back of the gripe, the edge to the left. 

Second Motion. Describe a circle quickly on the 
right from rear to front, the arm extended ; turn aside 
the bayonet with the back of the blade, bring the 
hand as high as the head, the back upwards. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 






CAVALRY. 179 

Against infantry, left — PARRY. 
One time and three motions. 

First Motion. At this command, turn the head to 
the left, raise the saber, the arm extended to the front 
and right, point upwards, hand in tierce, the thumb 
extended on the back of the gripe, the back of the 
blade to the front. 

Second Motion. Describe a circle quickly on the 
left from front to rear, along the horse's neck, the arm 
extended ; turn aside the bayonet with the back of 
the blade, bringing the hand still in tierce, above the 
left shoulder. 

Third Motion. Take the position of guard. 

COMBINED MOTIONS IN THE FOLLOWING ORDER: 

In tierce— POINT AND FRONT CUT. 

In quarte— POINT AND FRONT CUT. 

Left— POINT AND CUT. 

Eight— POINT AND CUT. 

Bear— POINT AND CUT. 

Against infantry, right— POINT AND CUT. 

Against infantry, left— POINT AND CUT. 

Carry — SABER. (As heretofore prescribed.) 

SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER MOUNTED. 

SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER MOUNTED. 

The object of this school is to make troopers skillful 
in the management of their horses, in all direction 
and gaits. 

The troopers are counted off by fours, from right 
to left. The instruction is commenced and termi- 
nated at a walk. 

To conduct his horse to the ground, he holds the 



180 CAVALRY. 

reins with the right hand, at six inches from the 
mouth of the horse, the nails under, the hand elevated 
and firm ; saber hooked up. 

POSITION OF THE TROOPER BEFORE MOUNTING. 

On the left side of the horse, abreast of the nether 
jaw ; hold the reins with the right hand at six inches 
from the mouth of the horse, the nails downwards, 
and assume the position of the soldier, with the left 
hand over the saber, saber unhooked. 

TO MOUNT. 

The command will be : 

Prepare to mount. 

One time and one motion. 

At this command, Nos. 1 and 3 of each rank move 
six paces to the front, stepping off with the left foot, 
keeping opposite their intervals, and regulating by 
the right. Place the right foot three inches in the 
rear of the left, make a face and a half to the right 
on both heels, the right foot remaining in front, let 
go the right rein, slip the right hand along the left 
rein, take two steps, stepping off with the right foot, 
and face to the left upon the point of the left foot ; 
the right hand seizing the end of the reins, is placed 
upon the cantle of the saddle. Place a third of the 
left foot in the stirrup, supporting it against the fore- 
arm of the horse ; rest upon the point of the right 
foot, and seize with the left hand, over the reins, a 
lock of the mane, as far forward as possible. 

MOUNT. 
One time and one motion. 
At the command mount, spring from the right foot, 



CAVALRY. 



181 



holding firmly the mane ; pass the right leg, stretched, 
over the croup of the horse without touching him ; 
place at the same time, the right hand, without quit- 
ting the reins upon the right holster, and adjust the 
reins. Place the right foot in the stirrup. 

[To adjust the reins, place the snaffle-rein, extend- 
ing through the palm of the left hand, the end passing 
out of the hand on the side of the little finger. The 
curbe-rein will pass up through the two first fingers 
from the side of the little finger.] 

Form ranks. 
At this command, Nos. 1 and 3 raise the wrists, 
and hold the legs close to the body of the horse, to 
keep him quiet; Nos. 2 and 4 enter the intervals. 
The rear- rank being formed, closes to the distance of 
two feet from the front. 

POSITION OF THE TROOPER MOUNTED. 

The buttocks bearing equally upon the saddle, and 
as far forward as possible ; thighs turned upon their 
flat side, embracing equally the horse ; a supple bend 
of the knees; legs and point of the feet falling natu- 
rally; loins supported without stiffness; the upper 
part of the body at ease, and erect ; shoulders equally 
thrown back, arms free ; elbows falling naturally ; 
head erect ; (one rein of the snaffle in each hand, the 
fingers closed.) 

Length of Stirrup. — They are at the proper length 
when the trooper raises himself upon them, there 
is a space of six inches between the fork and the 
saddle. 

POSITION OF THE FOOT IN THE STIRRUP. 

Insert the foot one-third of its length, the heel 
lower than the toe. 



182 CAVALRY. 

TO MARCH. 

The command will be : 

1. Squad, forward. 2. MARCH. 

At the command squad forward, elevate slightly 
the wrists, and close the legs, in order to gather the 
horse. 

At the command march, lower slightly the wrists, 
and close the legs more or less, according to the sen- 
sibility of the horse. 

TO HALT. 

Command : 

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 

At the command squad, gather the horse. 

At the command halt, brace himself in the saddle ; 
elevate the wrists, at the same time, by degrees, and 
close the legs. 

TO TURN TO THE RIGrHT (OR LEFT.) 

Command : 

1. Squad to the right (or left) 2. MARCH. 3. HALT. 

At the first command, gather the horse. 

At the command march, open the right rein, and 
close the right leg progressively ; perform the move- 
ment upon a quarter circle of three paces ; the move- 
ment being almost completed, diminish the effect of 
the rein and right leg, supporting the horse, at the 
same time, with the left leg and rein. 

At the command halt, execute what is prescribed 
above. 



CAVALRY. 183 

TO TURN ABOUT TO THE RIGHT AND LEFT. 

Command : 

1. Squad to the right (or left.) about. 2. MARCH. 
3. HALT. 

This is the same as the turn to the right (or left,) 
except that the horse passes over a semi-circle of six 
paces, and face to the rear. 

TO MAKE A QUARTER TURN TO THE RIGHT (OR LEFT.) 

Command : 

1. Squad, right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH. 

3. HALT. 

At the command right oblique, gather the horse. 

At the command march, same as in to turn to the 
right (or left.) 

At the command halt, execute what has been be- 
fore prescribed. 

TO REIN BACK AND CEASE REINING BACK. 

Command : 

1. Squad, backivards. 2. MARCH. 3. Squad. 

4. HALT. 

At the command squad backwards, gather the 
horse. 

At the command march, keep a firm seat, elevate 
the wrists, and close the legs. If the horse throws 
the haunches to the right, close the right leg ; if to 
the left, close the left leg. If these means do not cor- 
rect his position, open the rein on the side to which 
the horse throws his haunches, causing him to feel 
slightly the effect of the opposite rein. 



184 CAVALRY. 

At the command halt, execute what has been be- 
fore prescribed. 

Prepare to dismount 
One time and one motion. 

At this command, Nos. 1 and 3 of the front 
rank move forward six paces, Nos. 2 and 4 of the 
rear rank rein back four paces, and keep opposite 
their intervals ; the troopers dress by the right ; pass 
the extremity of the reins, leaving the hand on the 
side of the little finger ; seize the reins above and 
near the left little finger with the right hand, the 
nails downward, and place this hand upon the right 
holster; disengage the right foot from the stirrup, 
and seize with the left hand a lock of the mane over 
the reins. 

DISMOUNT. 
One time and one motion. 

At this command, rise upon the left stirrup, pass 
the right leg, extended, over the croup of the horse 
without touching him, the body well sustained, place 
at the same time the right hand upon the cantle of 
the saddle, slipping it along the reins, descend lightly 
to the ground, body erect, heels on the same line ; 
face to the front, and take the position of the trooper 
before mounting, hooking up the saber. 

Form ranks. 
(As heretofore prescribed.) 

TO FILE OFF. 

The command will be : 
1. By the right (or left,) file off. 2. MARCH. 



CAVALRY. 185 

At the command march, the trooper of the right, 
in each rank, steps off, leading his horse to the point, 
takes four steps, turns to the right, and marches in 
me new direction. Each trooper executes succes- 
sively this movement, when the one preceding has 
moved four paces to the front. 

TO MARCH TO THE RIGHT (OK LIFT) II. VXD. 

Command: 

\. Squad, to the right (or left.) 2. MARCH. 3. FOR- 
WARD. 

The first and second commands are executed same 
as turn to the right (or left,) from a halt. 

At the command forward, march straight forward 
and follow the conductor. 

TO LOAD PISTOL. 

The command will be : 

Draw— PISTOL. 
One time. 

Pass the right hand under the reins: draw the pis- 
tol from its holster, elevate it, the guard to the front, 
the wrist at the bight of, and six inches from, the 
right shoulder, the first linger extended on the 
guard. 

Load in seven times-. LOAD. 

At this command, place the pistol in the left hand, 
the guard slightly turned out, the little finger resting 
on the lock-plate, thumb on the barrel, the muzzle 
slightly elevated, inclined to the left, and carry the 
right hand to the holster, or cartridge-box, and 
open it. 



186 CAVALRY. 



Bandie— CAETEEDG-E. 

Take a cartridge between the thumb and the first 
finger, and place the end of it between the teeth. 

rear— CARTRIDGE. 

Tear the cartridge to the powder, holding it, as in 
handle cartridge, near the opening of the muzzle. 

Charge, — Cartridge, 

Cast the eyes upon the muzzle, turn the back of 
the right hand towards the body, and pour the pow- 
der into the barrel. 

Draw— RAMMER. 

Seize the rammer, draw it, and insert it about six 
inches into the barrel. 

Ram— CARTRIDGE. 

At this command, ram twice, draw out the ram- 
mer, taking it by the middle, return it in forcing it 
down with the hand, re-pass the butt between the 
reins and the body, half-cock and prime, and seize 
the pistol with the right hand at the small. 

Raise— PISTOL. 

At this command, raise the pistol with the right 
hand, letting go the left, the guard to the front, the 
wrist at the night of, and six inches from, the right 
shoulder, the first finger extended under the guard. 

Return— PISTOL. 
At this command, lower the muzzle of the pistol, 



CAVALRY. 181 

and return it to the holster, passing it under the 
reins. 

Load at will. 

At this command, the troopers will load their pis- 
tols, and stop at the position of raise pistol, to wait 
for commands. 

TO FIRE PISTOL. 

The command will be : 

Draw— PISTOL. 
(As heretofore prescribed.) 

READY. 

At this command, place the pistol in the left hand, 
the muzzle elevated and directed to the left ; cock, 
and raise pistol. 

AIM. 

At this command, lower the pistol, the arm half 
extended, place the first finger upon the trigger, the 
guard a little inclined to the right, the muzzle direc- 
ted to the hight of a man's waist. 

FIRE. 

Press the trigger and fire, without deranging the 
pistol, and take the position of raise pistol. 

Return— PISTOL. 

(As heretofore prescribed.) 



188 CAVALRY. 

Inspection of— PISTOL. 
One time and five motions. 

First Motion. Draw pistol. 

Second Motion. Place the pistol in the left hand, 
which holds it perpendicular, at the small, the lock 
to the front, draw the rammer, put it in the barrel, 
and re-place the right hand at the side. 

Third Motion. With the right hand spring the 
rammer, and return the rammer to the side. 

Fourth Motion. Return rammer, and take the po- 
sition of raise pistol. 

Fifth Motion. Return pistol. 

Inspection of — ARMS. 

At this command, the trooper will first execute ' 
what is prescribed for inspection of pistol, and then 
what is prescribed for inspection of saber. 

Individual— CHARGE. 

At this command, the trooper starts from a walk, 
with saber drawn, marches twenty paces and takes 
the trot, trots sixty paces and takes the charge at a 
full gallop, bearing upon the stirrups, and takes the 
position of raise saber, as front rank in tierce point, 
as rear rank in front cut, keeping the charge eighty 
paces, re-takes the trot and carries saber, keeps the 
trot sixty paces and comes to a walk, walks ten 
paces and halts. 



CAVALRY. 189 



SCHOOL OF THE SQUADRON MOUNTED. 

A squadron to bo composed of one or two com- 
panies. 

Post of officers and non-commissioned officers in 
line of squadron. A company acting singly : 

Captain in front of the center, one pace distant 
from the front rank ; 1st lieutenant, in rear of the 
center in the rank of file-closers; 2d lieutenant com- 
mands the first platoon ; 3d lieutenant commands the 
second platoon ; 1st sergeant in rear of the right, in 
rank of file-closers ; 2d sergeant in rear of the left, in 
rank of file-closers ; 3d sergeant on the right, not told 
off; 4th sergeant on the left of the troop, not told off; 
1st and 2d corporals on the flanks of the troop, next 
to the particular guides, (included) ; 3d corporal on 
the left of the first platoon, and the 4th corporal on 
the right of the second platoon ; buglers twenty paces 
in rear of the center. The 1st and 2d sergeants are 
the right and left principal guides ; the 2d and 4th 
are the right and left particular guides. The com- 
pany color to be carried by the man next to the cor- 
poral, on the left of the first platoon. 

ASSEMBLY OF A SQUADRON MOUNTED. 

Boots and saddles, are sounded. At this signal, 
the horses are saddled, bridled, and prepared to lead 
out. 

At the signal, to horse, the 1st sergeant forms the 
squadron, and calls the roll. 

The chiefs of platoon, mounted at ten paces from, 
and facing, the center of their platoons. 



■*r 



190 CAVALRY. 

The 1st sergeant reports the company to the cap- 
tain, who commands : 

1. Attention. 2. Eight— DRESS. 3. FRONT. In 

each platoon, and in each rank, count by fours. 

At this command, the men count off from the right 
of each rank of each platoon. 
The captain then commands : 

MOUNT. 
And then — 

Form— RANKS. 

At this command, the chiefs of platoon move for- 
ward, face to the front, by turning to the right about, 
and place themselves opposite to, and one pace from, 
the center of their platoons; the file-closers follow 
the rear rank. 

SUCCESSIVE ALIGNMENT OP PLATOONS IN SQUADRON. 

The captain will align the squadron by platoons, 
placing the principal guides upon a line parallel to 
the front, at thirty paces from the particular guides, 
facing each other. 

Notice being given by the captain, the chief of first 
platoon dresses it forward, by the following com- 
mands : 

1. Platoon, forward. 2. Guide right. 3. MARCH. 
4.' HALT. 5. Bight— DRESS. 

This platoon being aligned, the captain commands : 

1. By platoon, right— DRESS. 2. FRONT. 
At the first command, the chief of second platoon 



CAVALRY. 191 

marches his platoon to the front, and halts on the 
line of file-closers, and commands : 

Right— DRESS. 

The company being obliqued, the captain com- 
mands : 

FRONT, 

when the guides take their posts. 

TO OPEN AND CLOSE RANKS. 

TO OPEN RANKS. 

The command will be : 

1. Rear rank, open order. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the troopers of the rear 
rank will rein back six paces, and the chiefs of pla- 
toon move forward six paces, and face the center of 
their platoons by turning to the left about. 

He will then command : 

3. Right— DRESS. 4. FRONT. 

TO CLOSE RANKS. 



The command will be : 



% 



1. Rear rank, close order. 2. MARCH. 

When the rear rank will close, and the chiefs of pla- 
toon resume their places by turning to the right about. 
The command will then be: 

3. Right— DRESS. 4. FRONT. 



192 CAVALRY. 

TO BREAK BY FOURS. 

The command will be : 

1 By— FOURS. 
When the chief of the first platoon places himself in 
front of the four files of the right ,* the right particu- 
lar guide places himself on the right of the chief. 
The command will then be : 

2. MARCH. 3. Guide, left, 
The chief and four first files march to the front, and 
are followed by the others, who break successively, 
when the four first files have cleared the front rank, 
and march six paces to the front,, then oblique indi- 
vidually to the right, and follow by facing to the 
front. The chief of the second platoon breaks with 
the first column of fours of his platoon, abreast of 
them, and at one pace from the flanks of the column 
on the side of the guide ; the left particular guide 
marching in rear of the last column ; each rank of 
fours preserving a distance between them of two feet. 
The 1st sergeant on the right of the first fours of the 
second section ; the second sergeant on the right of 
the first fours of the fourth section. 

Column— HALT. 

TO RESUME THE DIRECT MARCH. 

The command will be : 

1. Column, forward. 2. MARCH. 3. Guide, left. 

The captain, wishing to change the gaits from a 
walk to a trot, will command : 

1. Trot. 2. MARCH. 



CAVALRY. 193 

From a trot to a gallop : 

„ 1. Gallop. 2. MARCH. 

From a gallop to a trot : 

1. Trot. 2. MARCH. 

From a trot to a walk : 

1. Walk. 2. MARCH. 

CHANGE OF DIRECTION. 

The command will be : 

Head of column, to the left (or right.) 

The leading chief gives the command right (or left) 
turn, and when the first column of fours have turned, 
he commands : 

Forward. 

The other chief gives the same commands, when 
his platoon arrives upon the ground where the first 
turned. 

INDIVIDUAL OBLIQUE MARCH. 

The command will be : 

1. Left or (right,) oblique. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the men will oblique in- 
dividually. And when marching obliquely to resume 
the proper front, the command is given forward, when 
they will march to the front. 

MARCHING BY FOURS TO FORM FRONT INTO LINE. 

The command will be : 
7 



194 CAVALRY. 

1. Front into line. 2. MARCH. 3. Right— DRESS. 

4. FRONT. 

■ 

At the command march, the four first files continue 
to march straight forward, thirty paces, the chief of 
the first platoon then commands halt, when the four 
first files halt; the particular guide of the right turns 
to the right of the squadron ; all the other files come 
up successively, and, without further commands, form 
to the left of, and upon the alignment of the first 
files, by an individual oblique to the left, and resume 
the front when opposite their intervals, dressing to 
the right ; officers and non-commissioned officers will 
resume their posts in line. 

DRESSINGS. 

The captain dresses the front rank ; the 1st lieu- 
tenant the rear rank and file- closers ; (this rule is 
general). The column of fours marching right in 
front, to form left into line. 

Command : 

1. Left into line. 2. MARCH. 3. Right— DRESS. 
4. FRONT. 

At the command march, the four leading files turn 
to the left and march forward thirty paces, and are 
halted by the chief of first platoon ; the other files 
align themselves on the left by a turn to the left, 
dressing to the right. 

TO FRONT ON RIGHT INTO LINE. 

Command : 

1. On right into line. 2. MARCH. 3. Right — 
DRESS. 4. FRONT. 






CAVALRY. 195 

At the command march, the four leading files turn 
to the right, march thirty paces, and are halted by 
the chief, when the guide resumes his post on the 
right; the other files continue to march forward and 
come up successively without commands, form on the 
left, upon the alignment of the first by marching for- 
ward, and turn to the right when opposite their inter- 
vals, dressing to the right. Left in front, these move- 
ments are executed by inverse commands and means, 
and by twos and files in the same manner. 

TO FORM THE SQUADRON IN ONE RANK AND IX TWO 
RANKS. 

Command : 

1. Left into single rank. 2. MARCH. 3. FRONT. 
4. HALT. 5. Right— DRESS. 6. FRONT. 

At the command march the front rank moves for- 
ward six paces, dressing by the right ; the trooper 
on the left of the rear rank turns to the left, and 
moves forward, and is followed by the others of that 
rank. 

At the command front the trooper of the rear rank 
turns to the right, the others, when they arrive oppo- 
site the place they are to occupy, turn to the right. 

At the command halt, the trooper on the left halts ; 
the others, on arriving abreast of him, halt. 

The company is dressed to the right, and heads 
turned to the front, by the above commands. 

1. Right into two ranks. 2. MARCH. 3. Right — 
DRESS. 4. FRONT. 

At the command march, the front rank moves for- 
ward six paces, dressing by the right ; the trooper 
on the right of the rear rank turns to the right as 
soon as the front rank has passed, and moves for- 



196 CAVALRY. 

ward, obliquing to the right, when in rear of the 
trooper on the right of the front rank he fronts, by 
turning to the left; the others execute the same 
movement, covering their file-leaders. They will 
dress to the right, and turn their heads to the front, 
by the above commands. 

THE SQUADRON BEING IN LINE TO FORM IN COLUMN 
WITH DISTANCE. 

Command : 
1. Platoons, right wheel 2. MARCH. 3. HALT. 

At the first command, the left file of each platoon 
prepares to step off, the pivot turning on its own 
ground. 

At the command march, each platoon executes its 
wheel to the right, following the principles of the 
wheel on a fixed pivot. 

At the command halt, all the troopers halt at the 
same instant, the rear rank covering their file-leaders. 
During this movement, the particular guide of the 
left passes as file-closer, behind the second file from 
the left of the second platoon, the 2d sergeant moving 
to the right. 

The left wheel is executed by inverse means. 

TO MARCH IN COLUMN WITH DISTANCE. 

Command : 

1. Column, forward. 2. MARCH. 3. Guide left. 

At the command march, the platoons put them- 
seves in motion, at the same time the leading guide 
marching direct to the front. 






CAVALRY. 197 

CHANGES OF DIRECTION BY SUCCESSIVE WHEELS. 

Command : 

Head of column to the left, (or half left.) to the rigid, 
(or half-right) 

The chief of the first platoon commands : left, (or 
right, turn, which is executed upon a movable pivot; 
the arc of the circle described by the pivots should 
be of five paces. Each chief will turn his platoon on 
the same ground. 

At the command head of column to the left, the 
principal guide of the right marches to the side of the 
pivot, and places himself so that the head of his horse 
will mark the center point of the arc to be described 
by the pivot. The squadron being left in front, these 
movements are executed by inverse means. 

TO BREAK THE SQUADRON BY FILES, BY TWOS, OR BY 
FOURS, FROM THE RIGHT, AT A HALT. 

Command : 

1. By files, (twos or fours.) 2. MARCH. 3. Guide left 

At the first command, the chief of first platoon and 
particular guide of the right, will take their places in 
front of the first files on the right, when breaking by 
twos or fours, and when by file, the chief of first pla- 
toon places himself in front of the particular guide of 
the right. 

At the command inarch, the first files march to the 
front ; the other files march as prescribed to break by 
fours. 

To break by twos or fours to the left, execute the 
movement by inverse means. 



198 CAVALRY. 

TO BREAK BY TWOS OR FOURS TO THE RIGHT. 

Command : 

1. By fours, (or twos.) right wheel. 2. MARCH. 
3. HALT. 

At the command march, the wheels are executed 
in each rank by twos or fours. 

If the captain wishes to move the squadron for- 
ward, he w r ill substitute the command forward for 
the command halt 

To break by twos or fours to the left, execute the 
movement by inverse means. 

TO FORM TWOS OR FOURS AT THE SAME GAIT. 

The squadron marching right in front by file, to 
form twos and fours on a march, command : 

1. Form twos. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the first file continues to 
march, and are halted by the leading chief at ten 
paces ; the second file obliques to the left, and comes 
up abreast of the first, and dresses to the right ; the 
other files continue to inarch forward ; Nos. 2 and 4 
executing the same movement. 

Fours are formed at the same gait, in the same 
manner. 

TO BREAK BY TWOS AND BY FILE AT THE SAME GAIT. 

The squadron marching in column by fours right 
in front, to break by twos, command : 

1. By twos. 2. MARCH. 3. Guide left. 

At the command by tivos, troopers prepare to halt, 
except Nos. 1 and 2 of the leading files. 



CAVALRY. 199 

At the command march, Nos. 1 and 2 of the lead- 
ing tiles continue to march at the same gait, and all 
the others halt. The second platoon being halted by 
its chief. 

Break from twos by file in the same manner. 

TO FORM TWOS AXD FOURS IN DOUBLING THE GAIT. 

The squadron marching in column by file right in 
front, to form tiuos, command : 

1. Form twos, trot. 2. MARCH. 3. Guide left. 

At the first command, the troopers prepare to take 
the trot, except the leading file. 

At the command march, all the troopers take the 
trot, except the leading file ; the second file obliques 
to the left, and on arriving abreast of the first, takes 
the walk ; the other files continue to trot, and take 
the walk on arriving at their proper distance, by twos. 

To form fours, is executed in the same manner. 

The above movements, when marching at a trot, 
are executed in the same manner by a gallop. 

TO BREAK BY TWOS AXD BY FILE IX DOUBLING GAIT. 

Squadron marching in column by fours right in 
front, at a walk, command : 

1. By hvos, trot 2. MARCH. 3. Guide left. 

At the first command, files Nos. 1 and 2, of the 
leading rank of fours, prepare to trot. 

At the command inarch, they commence the trot ; 
the other files continue to march at the walk ; files 3 
and 4 take the trot, and oblique to the right, and 
place themselves in column behind Nos. 1 and 2. 

To break from twos by file, execute in the same 
manner. 



200 CAVALRY. 

The above movements with squadron left in front, 
are executed by inverse means. 

COUNTERMARCH. 

The squadron in line, to face it in the opposite di- 
rection, command: 

1. Countermarch by the right flank. 2. By file to the 
right 3. MARCH. 

At the second command, the chiefs of platoon turn 
to the right ; the chief of first platoon placing himself 
in front of his first file, the file-closers turn to the left, 
and pass to the left of the squadron, those of the 
second platoon abreast of the front rank, the 1st 
lieutenant on their left, those of the first platoon 
abreast of the rear rank ; the particular guide of the 
right, places himself behind the particular guide of 
the left, facing to the rear, the croup of his horse six 
paces from the rear rank. 

At the command march, the trooper on the right 
of each rank turns to the right, they then wheel to- 
gether to the right, pass near the croup of the horses 
of the rear rank, and are followed by the other troop- 
ers, who execute the same movement, passing over 
the same ground. 

When the first file is at two paces from the partic- 
ular guide, who indicates the place where it is to 
form, command: 

1. Front. 2. HALT. 3. Eight— DRESS. 4. FRONT. 

At the commands halt and right dress, the 1st lieu- 
tenant turns about and dresses the rear rank ; the 
file-closers follow the movement, and resume their 
places. The squadron being aligned, at the command 
front, the chiefs of platoon face to the front by a turn 



CAVALRY. 201 

to the left. This movement should be generally exe- 
cuted at the trot ; for this purpose, after the second 
command, the captain indicates the gait. This move- 
ment is also executed by the left flank by inverse 
means. 

WHEELINGS. 

The principles to be observed in wheelings, on a 
fixed or movable pivot, are as follows : 

On a fixed pivot, the pivot-trooper turns upon his 
own ground, without advancing or reining back, or 
passing to the right or the left, so that the center of 
gravity of his horse remains on the same point ; thus, 
in wheeling to the right, the shoulders of the pivot- 
horse describe an arc of a circle, in passing from left 
to right, while the haunches describe another in pass- 
ing from right to left; the pivot-trooper turns his 
head slightly towards the marching flank, to align 
himself on the conductor of that flank. When the 
squadron is marching the pivot halts, and the march- 
ing flank executes the movements at the same gait 
as before the wheel. 

When the squadron is marched forward, after a 
wheel, on a fixed pivot, the guide is ordered on the 
side of the marching flank, immediately after the 
command forward, unless the movement of the squad- 
ron requires the contrary. 

The wheel on a movable pivot is employed in the 
successive changes of direction in column. 

In this wheel, the object of the movable pivot is 
to leave by degrees the ground on which the move- 
ment commences, the conductor of the marching flank 
should increase his gait, and describe his arc of circle 
so as to cause the files neither to open nor close. The 
pivot describes an arc of five paces, by slackening the 



202 CAVALRY. 

gait; in each rank the troopers from the center to 
the marching flank, increase the gait progressively, 
so that the center man preserves the gait at which 
the platoon was marching; the troopers, from the 
center to the pivot, slacken the gait progressively. 
At the end of a wheel on a movable pivot, all the 
troopers resume the same gait as before they wheeled; 
during the wheelings, the chiefs of platoon are at the 
center of their platoons, and aligned upon each other; 
the particular guide placed on the side of the pivot, 
is the actual pivot, although not counted in the rank. 
In wheels of a squadron on a movable pivot, the 
pivot should describe an arc of ten paces. 

FOR THE COLUMN BY FOURS. 

The squadron marching right in front, to cause it 
to march to the rear, command: 

1. By fours, left about wheel. 2. MARCH. 3. For- 
ward. 4. Guide left. 

At the command march, the movement is executed 
in each rank by fours ; No. 1 becomes the marching, 
and No. 4 the pivot flank; after the movement is ex- 
ecuted, the rear rank is in front. 

The right about ivheel is executed by inverse 
means. Movements by twos in the same manner, 
and at all gaits. 

The squadron marching by platoon or by fours, 
with distance right in front, to gain ground to the 
right and march to the left, so as to come into line in 
two ranks, command : 

1. By platoon, (or by fours,) to the right, and by file to 
the left. 2. MARCH. 3. Guide left. 






CAVALRY. 203 

At the command march, each trooper of the front 
and rear rank, on the right of column, turn to the 
right and file to the left ; all the other files follow in 
the same movement. 

Squadron left in front, is executed by inverse 
means. 

TO OPEN RANKS FOR SABER EXERCISE. 

Squadron in open ranks, command : 

1. By the left, open files. 2. MARCH. 3. Right— 
DRESS. 4. FRONT. 

At the command march, the trooper on the right 
of each rank moves forward six paces, the one on the 
left of each rank turns to the left and moves forward, 
and is followed by all the other troopers of his rank, 
who execute the same movement as soon as they 
have the necessary space to put themselves in file at 
the proper distances. The second trooper, from the 
right of each rank, after having marched three paces, 
turns and dresses to the right ; each of the troopers 
look occasionally to the rear, and perform succes- 
sively the same movement, when at three paces from 
the one who follows him, and dresses upon those al- 
ready formed ; the troopers of the rear rank covering 
their file-leaders. 

Ranks are dressed by the captain and 1st lieuten- 
ant. The posts of officers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers, in the saber exercise, are as follows: Captain, 
twenty paces in front of the center, facing the com- 
pany; 1st lieutenant, six paces in rear of the center 
of the company ; chiefs of platoon, six paces in front, 
and opposite the center of their platoons ; principal 
guide of the right and left, three paces in rear of the 
right and left of the rear rank, and covering the third 



204 CAVALRY. 

files from right and left ; particular guides, on each 
flank of the front rank, at three paces distance. All 
will execute this exercise, excepting the captain and 
1st lieutenant. 

To close ranks, command : 

1. To the right, close files. 2. MARCH. 

At the command march, the right trooper of each 
rank moves forward six paces ; all the other troopers 
execute a turn to the right and move forward; each 
trooper on arriving within two paces of the place he 
is to occupy in line, turns to the left, and places him- 
self on the left of the troopers already formed, dress- 
ing to the right ; officers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers resume their posts in line ; close ranks as before 
prescribed. 

CHARGE. 

The squadron, being in line with sabers drawn, 
command : 

1. Squadron forward. 2. Guide right, {or left.) 
3. MARCH. 

When the squadron has marched twenty paces, 
command : 

1. Trot. 2. MARCH. 

At sixty paces further, command : 

1. Gallop. 2. MARCH. 

At eighty paces further, command : 
Charge. 

At this command, repeated by the chiefs of platoon, 
the troopers take the position of raise saber ; chiefs, 
particular guide and front rank of first motion in tierce 



CAVALRY. 205 

point ; the file-closers and rear rank of first motion 
in front cut. 

After the squadron has passed over sixty paces at 
the charge, command: 

1. Attention. 2. Squadron. 3. HALT. 4. Right — 
DRESS. 5. FRONT. 

At the command attention, repeated by the chiefs 
of platoon, the troopers prepare to slacken the pace, 
and carry the saber to the shoulder. 

At the command squadron, the chiefs command: 
platoon, and the troopers pass to the trot. 

At the command halt, repeated by the chiefs, the 
troopers halt, and dress to the right. 

The charge by columns of platoons, is executed in 
the same manner, excepting that there is a trumpeter 
placed two hundred and forty paces in front, to give 
the signal for the charge. At the signal, the chief of 
the first platoon will execute the same commands as 
prescribed for the squadron, and when halted, the 
chief of the second will execute the same. 

COMPLIMENTS OF SQUADRON IN LINE UNDER REVIEW. 

The post of officers in line are as follows : Captain, 
commanding parade, ten paces in front of the center ; 
1st lieutenant, one pace in front of center ; chiefs of 
platoon and non-commissioned officers, as in line of 
battle. Command : 

1. Attention. 2. Prepare for review. 3. Rear rank, 
open order. 4. MARCH. 5. Right— DRESS. 6. 
FRONT. 

At the fourth command, execute as before pre- 
scribed; the officers marching six paces to the front, 
the 1st lieutenant passing around the left of the 
squadron to the front. Command : 



206 CAVALRY. 

1. Attention. 2. Draw;— SABER. 
"When the reviewing personage is mid-way between 
the camp-color and the captain, commanding, the lat- 
ter turns his horse to the right about on his own 
ground, and commands : 

1. Attention. 2. Present— SABER, 
and resumes his proper front, the officers saluting. 
When the reviewing officer advances, the captain, 
commanding, brings his saber to a carry, turns about 
as before, and commands : 

1. Attention. 2. Carry— SABER. 
The line remaining steady, the captain command- 
ing, resumes his proper front. When the reviewing 
officer arrives near the camp-color, the captain turns 
about, and commands : 

1. Attention. 2. Rear rank, close order. 3. MARCH. 

At the command march, the officers face to the left 
about, close, and face to the front by a right about ; 
the 1st lieutenant resuming his place in rear. 

To pass in review, the squadron will be broken by 
platoons, to the right — then command : 

1. Pass in review. 2. Forward, guide right. 4. 
MARCH. 

At the command march, the captain throws him- 
self six paces in front of the chief of the first platoon ; 
the 1st lieutenant, as prescribed, on the right. 

Passing at a walk, all officers salute with saber, as 
they arrive within six paces of the reviewing officer. 
After passing in review at a walk and trot, the com- 
pany is formed as before, for review, the ranks being 
open, etc. 



ARTILLERY. 



SCHOOL OF THE PIECE. 

A detachment for field ordnance is composed of 
nine men on foot, and eleven men in horse artillery, 
including the gunner, and falls, in two deep, in close 
order. The gunner tells the detachment off from the 
right; No. 1 being on the right of the rear rank. No. 
2 on the right of the front, 3 on the left of 1, and 4 
on the left of 2, and so on, the even numbers being 
in the front, and the odd in the rear rank ; No. 8 is 
told off as chief of caisson, and the detachment is di- 
vided into sections. The above rule will be observed 
with drag-ropes or bricoles. If the chief of the piece 
is not mounted, he performs the duty of telling off; 
the gunner is posted in front of No. 5, and No. 6 in 
front of No. 7. In horse artillery, the gunner in 
front of No. 5, No. 6 in front of No. 7, No. 9 in the 
center of the rear, and No. 10 in center of front rank. 

POST OF THE DETACHMENT. 

1. Piece Unlimbered. — The gunner at the end of 
the trail handspike ; Nos. 1 and 2 are two feet out- 



208 ARTILLERY. 

side the wheels, No. 1 on the right, and 2 on the left, 
with howitzers rather in rear of the muzzle, with 
guns, in line with the front part of the wheels ; Nos. 
3 and 4 in line with the knob of the cascable, cover- 
ing 1 and 2 ; No. 5 is five yards in rear of the left 
wheel ; No. 6 in rear of the limber, and No. 7 on his 
left, covering No. 5 ; No. 8, the chief of caisson, is 
four yards in rear of the limber, and on its left ; all 
face to the front, which, with the piece unlimbered, 
is in the direction of the muzzle; the chief of the 
piece is opposite the middle of the trail handspike, 
outside, and near the left cannoneers. 

2. Piece Limbered. — Nos. 1 and 2 opposite the 
muzzle ; 3 and 4 are opposite the knob of the casca- 
ble, the gunner and No. 5 opposite to the rear, and 
Nos. 6 and 7, the front part of the limber wheels ; 
No. 8 is on the left, and opposite the limber box of 
the caisson ; all face to the front, which is in the di- 
rection of the pole, and cover each other in line, one 
yard from the wheels, the even numbers on the right, 
and the odd on the left ; the chief of the piece is on 
the left, if not mounted, opposite the end of the pole ; 
if mounted, he is near the leading driver. 

3. In Front — The detachment is in line, ten yards 
in front of the leading horses or end of the pole, 
when horses are not hitched in, the gunner on the 
right, and the center of the detachment opposite the 
end of the pole. 

4. In Rear. — The detachment is in line, two j^ards 
in rear of the muzzle, the gunner on the right, and 
the center of the detachment opposite the muzzle. 

5. On the Right or Left. — The detachment is in 
line opposite the limber axletree, and three yards 
from it ; gunner on the right. In horse artillery, it is 
in line with the leading horses, and three yards from 
them. The chief of the piece, when not mounted, 



ARTILLERY. 209 

takes the place of the gunner, with the detachment 
in front or rear, on the right or left, the latter taking 
post in front of No. 5 of the piece. 

6. Mounted with three Boxes. — The gunner, Nos. 5 
and 6 on the limber box, gunner on the right, No. 5 
on the left; Nos. 1, 2 and 7 on the limber box of the 
caisson, 2 on the right, and 1 on the left : Nos. 3, 4 
and 8 on the center box of the caisson, 4 on the 
right, and 3 on the left. 

7. With four Boxes. — Nos. 6 and 7 are on the rear 
box of the caisson, No. 6 on the right, the other num- 
bers as before. 

METHOD OF MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING THE DE- 
TACHMENTS. MOUNTING WITH THREE BOXES. 

Carriages at a halt, command : 

1. Prepare to Mount 2. MOUNT. 

At the first command, they run to their respective 
places, and stand facing the boxes upon which they 
are to mount ; the gunner and No. 5 in rear of the 
gun limber, No. 6 on the right of the gunner ; Nos. 1 
and 2 in rear of the caisson limber, No. 7 on left of 
No. 1, Nos. 3 and 4 in front of the center box of the 
caisson, No. 8 on the right of No. 3 ; the gunner and 
Nos. 2 and 3 seize the handles with the right hand, 
and step upon the stocks with the left foot, and Nos. 
5, 1 and 4 seize the handles with the left hand, and 
step upon the stocks with the right foot. At the 
second command, the gunner and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 
5, spring into their seats, the gunner and Nos. 5, 1 
and 2, with their backs to the front; No. 8 then 
springs into his seat in the same manner as No. 3, 
and Nos. 6 and 7 step in rear of their boxes, place 
their hands upon the knees of the men already 



210 ARTILLERY. 

mounted, step upon the stocks with their nearest 
feet, and springing up, step over the boxes and take 
their seats; the gunner and Nos. 5, 1 and 2, then 
face about to the front, by throwing their legs out- 
wards over the handles. When the word mount is 
given by itself, the men run to their places and spring 
into their seats at once, No. 8 taking his seat before 
No. 3. 

MOUNTING WITH FOUR BOXES. 

At the command : 

Prepare to Mount, 

Nos. 6 and 7 run to the rear box of the caisson ; No. 
6 takes hold of the handle with the right, and No. 7 
with the left hand ; No. 6 steps upon a spoke of the 
wheel with the right, and No. 7 with the left foot ; 
at the command mount, both spring into their seats, 
and sit with their backs to the front ; the other Nos. 
mount as before. In mounting, Nos. 3, 4 and 8, will 
step upon the spokes of the wheel with the nearest 
feet, when they find it easier than to step upon the 
stock. 

DISMOUNTING. 

The carriages halted, command: 

1. Prepare to Dismount 2. DISMOUNT. 

At the first command, the cannoneers stand up in 
in their places, except the gunner and No. 5, who 
face about ; at the second command, the whole jump 
off and run to their posts; when the word dismount 
is given by itself, the men jump from their boxes in 
the same manner. The cannoneers always dismount 
at the command action front, right or left; they also 



ARTILLERY. 211 

dismount at the command in battery, as soon as the 
carriage on which they are halts. 

CHANGE OF POSITION OF DETACHMENTS. 

To form the order of march, the detachments being 
in line in front, command : 

1. Detachments to your posts. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the gunners face the detach- 
ment to the right by commanding : 

Eight— FACE. 

At the second command, which is repeated by the 
gunners, the detachments Nos. 1 and 2, opening out, 
file to their posts, each number halting at his place. 
The gunners face them to the front by commanding : 

About— FACE. 

To form the order of march, the detachments being 
in line, in rear, or on the right or left, the same com- 
mands are given, but the gunners, in each case, face 
the detachment to the left, and march them by that 
flank to their posts, each number halting as before. 

FROM FRONT TO REAR. 

Command : 

1. Detachments rear. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the gunners face the detach- 
ments about; at the second, which is repeated by 
the gunners, the sections divide, march on each side 
of their pieces to the rear, unite again, and are halted 
and faced about by the gunners. 



212 ARTILLERY. 

FROM REAR TO FRONT, RIGHT OR LEFT. 

Command : 

Detachments front, right (or left) MARCH. 

In changing from rear to front, at the command 
march, repeated by the gunners, the sections divide, 
march on each side of their pieces to the front, unite 
again, and are halted by the gunners. In changing 
from rear to right or left, the gunners command, 
right (or left) oblique and march, successively, after 
the first and second commands of the captain, and 
afterwards, forward, march, and halt, in time to bring 
the detachments to their posts in line with the lim- 
ber axletrees. 

FROM THE ORDER OF MARCH TO THE REAR. 

Command : 

1. Detachments rear. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the gunners face the detach- 
ments about ; at the second, repeated by the gunners, 
the detachments Nos. 1 and 2, closing to the center 
as they advance, march to the rear, file to the left, 
and are halted and faced to the front by the gunners. 
In forming the detachments to the front from the 
order of march, at the command march, repeated by 
the gunners, the detachments Nos. 1 and 8, closing 
to the center, when clear of the horses, march to the 
front, file to the left, and are halted and faced to the 
front by the gunners. In forming in line to the front 
or rear, or on the right or left, the gunners dress them 
to the right after halting them. The chiefs of pieces, 
when not mounted, give the commands laid down for 
gunners in the foregoing change of positions of de- 



ARTILLERY. 213 

tachments. The commands of the gunners are exe- 
cuted as prescribed in Cavalry tactics ; detachments 
are always dressed to the right by the gunners, after 
they are halted. 

METHOD OF PERFORMING THE DUTIES OF SERVING 
ORDNANCE, COMMANDING AND POINTING. 

The gunner gives all executive commands in ac- 
tion, is answerable that all the numbers perform their 
duties correctly, communicates the orders he receives 
for the kind of ammunition to be fired, sending to No. 
6 the length of the fuze when firing shells. At the 
command commence firing, he commands load, and 
taking hold of the handspike at the end with his 
right hand, and at the center with his left, places his 
left knee against his left hand, bending over it, the 
right knee being slightly bent, he looks over the top 
of the piece and gives the direction; he then steps to 
the breach to give the elevation, which he does by 
taking hold of the handle of the elevating screw, 
drawing back his right foot, and bending over his 
left knee. When the elevation is given by the quar- 
ter sights, the gunner places the nail of his thumb in 
the proper notch, and regulates the breech according 
to the required elevation. 

In the drill of recruits, the gunner should be made 
to name the elevation and range, before stepping up 
to the breech. When the piece is elevated, he gives 
the command ready, and stepping clear of the wheel 
to that side where he can observe the effect of his 
shot, commands fire; alter the fire, he causes the 
piece to be run up to its former place, if necessary. 
When the captain gives the command load, instead of 
commence firing, the gunner repeats it, and performs 
the same duties as prescribed above, except that he 
will not command fire, until the firing is ordered to 



214 ARTILLERY. 

commence; after the command commence firing is 
given, the action is continued by the gunner until 
the firing is ordered to cease. When the commands 
are all given by the captain, as in loading by detail, 
the gunner performs the same duties, without repeat- 
ing commands. 

SPONGING AND LOADING. 

Until the command load, No. 1 stands square to 
the front, in line with the front of the wheels, hold- 
ing the sponge about the middle of the staff in his 
right hand, and trailing it an angle of forty-five de- 
grees. For the convenience of instruction, the duties 
of No. 1 are divided into motions : 

First Motion. At the command load, No. 1 faces 
to the left, steps obliquely to the right with his right 
foot, and at the same time brings the sponge smartly 
to a perpendicular position, by drawing his right 
hand up in line with the elbow ; the sponge is grasped 
firmly in the hand, and the rammer-head kept just 
over the right toe, the elbow close to the side. 

Second Motion. He steps obliquely to the left with 
the left foot, planting it about half-way between the 
piece and the wheel, and opposite the muzzle, bring- 
ing the sponge at the same time across his body to 
the left, so that his right hand may be opposite the 
middle of the body. 

Third Motion. He takes a side step to the right 
of thirty inches, and bending his right knee, brings 
the sponge to a horizontal position, extending the 
hands to the ends of the staff, the sponge-head to the 
left, the back of his right hand up, and left down, 
the sponge-head against the face of the piece. 

Fourth Motion. He inserts the sponge-head, drops 
the left hand behind the thigh, the shoulders square 
and feet equally turned out, straightens his right 



ARTILLERY. 215 

knee, bends over the left and forces the sponge 
home. 

Sponge. 

First Motion. At the command sponge, he gives 
two turns to the sponge, pressing it against the bot- 
tom of the bore. 

Second Motion. lie draws out the sponge, straight- 
ening the left knee and bending the right, seizes the 
staff near the sponge-head with the left hand, the 
back of the hand down, and places the sponge against 
the face of the piece. 

Third Motion. He turns the sponge by bringing his 
hands together on the middle of the staff, giving it a 
cant with each band, throwing the sponge-head over, 
and at the same time turning his wrist which brings 
the staff horizontal; lie then extends his hands to 
the ends of the staff, the back of the left up, the right 
down. 

Fourth Motion. He introduces the rammer-head 
into the muzzle as soon as No. 2 has inserted the 
charge, and joins his left hand to his right. 

Ram. 

First Motion. At the command ram, he rams home, 
throwing the weight of his body with the rammer, 
bending over his left knee, extending his left arm, 
back of the hand up in a horizontal position over the 
piece, and the hand in line with the shoulders. 

Second Motion. He jerks the sponge out with his 
right hand, allowing it to slide through the hand as 
far as the middle of the staff, when he grasps it 
tirmly and, seizing it close to the rammer-head with 
his left hand, back of the hand up, places the ram- 
mer-head against the face of the piece, both knees 
straight. 



216 ARTILLERY. 

Third Motion. He then draws the sponge close to 
his body and immediately steps back outside the 
wheel, beginning with his right and then with his 
left foot, so that when the right foot is brought to it 
the right hip may be in a line with the front of the 
wheel. In drawing the right foot to the left he gives 
the sponge a cant with his left hand, at the same 
time quitting it and brings the sponge to a perpen- 
dicular position on the right, the rammer-head rest- 
ing on the right toe. He remains facing the piece, 
keeps his eyes fixed on the muzzle, and at the com- 
mand load, steps in and performs his duties in the 
same manner as before. 

When the loading is not by detail, No. 1 goes 
through all his duties at the command load, and re- 
turns to his position outside the wheel as given in 
the third motion of ram ; and at the flash of the gun 
steps in and performs his duties in same manner ; 
this he continues until the command : 

Cease firing. 

At this command, No. 1 steps up between the 
muzzle and the wheel, by the oblique steps indicated 
in the exercise above, turns the staff, seizing it with 
the left hand, at the same time shifting his right, the 
back up, that of the left down, and passes the sponge 
on its hook, rammer-head to the rear, for No. 3 to 
secure ; he then steps back as before and faces to the 
front. If the sponging has been commenced when 
the above command is given, it will be completed 
before the sponge is put up. In sponging and ram- 
ming, if the length of the piece requires it, the sponge 
and rammer are to be pressed home in two motions, 
No. 1 extending his right hand back to the end of 
the staff, as soon as it reaches the muzzle. 

In sponging howitzers, No. 1 presses the sponge 



ARTILLERY. 217 

to the bottom of the chamber which should be well 
sponged out. He wipes the bore by rubbing its 
whole surface without allowing the sponge to turn 
in his hands. 

LOADING. 

Until the command load, No. 2 stands in the same 
position as No. 1. On this command being given he 
faces to his right, and by two oblique steps, one to 
the left, the other to the right, places himself near 
the muzzle of the piece, and then faces to his right. 
He brings his hands together to receive the ammuni- 
tion from No. 5, the cartridge in his right, the shot 
in his left hand. As soon as the sponge is with- 
drawn li£ faces to his left and puts the ammunition 
into the muzzle (taking care that the seam of the 
cartridge does not come under the vent) and then 
steps back commencing with his left foot to his posi- 
tion outside the wheel, in the same manner that No. 
I does. He remains facing the piece until he (hears 
the command load, if loading by detail, or) observes 
the flash of the gun, then steps in and performs his 
duties as before. At the command cease firing, he 
takes his position outside of the wheel and faces to 
the front. With the howitzer, No. 2 puts in the 
cartridge which No. 1 sets home ; he then puts in 
the shell so that the fuze may rest against the ram- 
mer-head, and No. 1 sets it home carefully. 

Serving the Vent — No. 3 stands in line with the 
knob of the cascable covering No. 1. At the com- 
mand load, he steps to his left, wipes the vent-field 
with the ball of his left thumb, then places it on the 
vent, keeping his elbow raised and his fingers on the 
left side of the piece, so as to allow the gunner to 
point it over his thumb, his right hand on the tube- 
box. When the piece is loaded, he steps to his right, 



218 ARTILLERY. 

at the same time No. 1 steps back, uncaps a tube, or 
takes a percussion cap, holding it between the thumb 
and fore-finger of his right hand, the hand still on the 
box; and, at the command ready, steps in to the 
piece, pricks the cartridge, drops in the tube or fixes 
the cap, and remains with his left hand over the vent. 
At the command fire, he steps to his right, clear of 
the wheel. At the command load, if loading by de- 
tail, or when he sees the flash of the gun, he serves 
vent, as before. 

At the command cease firing, he receives the ram- 
mer-head from No. 1, keys it up, and returns to his 
position ; he also unkeys the sponge in going into 
action. 

FIRING. 

No. 4 stands in line with the knob of the cascable 
covering No. 2. At tha command load, he steps to 
his right, takes the port-fire stock out of its stocks 
with his right hand, takes hold of the lighted end of 
the slow-match from under the apron of the box, and 
blowing it, lights the portfire, he then steps back to 
his place outside the wheel, holding the portfire-stock 
firmly in the right hand, finger-nail to the front, the 
portfire stock touching the wheel, and the portfire 
inside of it. When the piece is not provided with a 
slow-match box, the linstock is used ; in this case, 
as the piece is unlimbered, No. 4 steps in and takes 
the linstock from its socket, steps back again, and 
plants in his rear, facing to his right, stepping oft* 
with his right foot for that purpose. He then draws 
back his foot and faces to the front. He lights the 
portfire by facing and stepping off in the same way. 

At the command fire, he raises his hand slowly, 
clear of the wheel, turning the back of the hand to 
the front, brings the portfire rather in front of the 
vent and fires ; as soon as the gun is fired, he lowers 






ARTILLERY. 2 1 9 

the portfire slowly. Should the tube or cap fail to 
explode the charge, the gunner immediately com- 
mands: Dortt advance; the tube or cap's failed; upon 
which, No. 2 steps inside the wheel close to the axle- 
tree ; No. 3 advances outside the opposite wheel, and 
gives his priming-wire to No. 2, who pricks the car- 
tridge ; he then gives him a tube, which he fixes, and 
both resume their posts; No. 4 is answerable that 
the slow-match is kept burning. At the command 
cease firing, No. 4 shifts the portfire stock into his left 
hand, cuts off" the lighted end, and places the stock in 
its locker ; if a linstock is used, he puts that up also. 
When using a lock, he coils the lanyard round the 
neck of the cascable, or unhooks it, and carries it in 
his hand, as may be required. 

SERVING AMMUNITION. 

No. 5 stands five yards in rear of, and covering, 
the left wheel. At the command had, he runs back 
to No. 6 or 7, gets a round of ammunition from 
him, shot in his right and cartridge in his left hand, 
and delivers them to No. 2 ; immediately returns to 
No. 6 for another round, and then halts at his own 
post until the piece is fired. At the command cease 
firing, he carries the round back to No. 6. 

With the twenty-four pound howitzer, No. 7 car- 
ries up the shell on the left side, delivers it to No. 2 ; 
No. 6 attends at the limber and serves ammunition, 
being careful not to raise the lid unnecessarily ; when 
firing shells, he prepares and fixes the fuzes, in which 
he is assisted by No. 7. At the command cease firing, 
he secures the lid ; No. 7 supplies ammunition to No. 
5, which he gets from No. 6, holding the cartridge in 
his right and shot in his left hand. 



220 ARTILLERY. 



LOADING BY DETAIL. 

For instruction, the exercise is conducted by de- 
tail. The commands are : 

Load by Detail— LOAD ; 2, 3, 4— SPONGE ; 2, 3, 4 
—RAM ; 2, 3— Beady— FIRE ; Cease Firing. 

When the men are instructed, the commands are : 

LOAD. Commence— -FIRING. Cease— FIRING ; 

or, Commence Firing and Cease Firing. 

After the command commence firing, the action is 
continued until cease firing is given, which is repeated 
by the chief of the piece and gunner. 

In order to instruct the men in all the duties of the 
piece, the men change posts, by the command : 

Change Posts— MARCH. 
At the command change posts, the men on the right 
of the piece face about, take off their equipments, and 
at the command march, each man takes the place and 
equipments of the one in his front ; No. 1 takes place 
of No. 3, No. 3 of No. 8, No. 8 of No. 6, No. 6 of No. 
7, No. 1 of No. 5, No. 5 of No. 4, No. 4 of No. 2, 
No. 2 of No. 1. The gunner is changed by being- 
directed to change with one of the numbers. 

EQUIPMENTS. 

The gunner distributes the equipments at the com- 
mand take equipments, and receives them at the com- 
mand replace equipments. The portfire case when 
used, is carried by No. 4, hung from his right shoul- 
der to his left side ; ammunition pouches when used, 
are carried by Nos. 5, 1 and 8, hung from the left 
shoulder to the right side. 



ARTILLERY. 221 

LIMBERING TO THE FRONT. 

Command : 

Limbering to the front. 

At this command, the piece is brought about by 
the cannoneers, and the limber, inclining to the right, 
passes to its place in front of it. To bring the piece 
about, the gunner and No. 5, facing towards the left, 
seize the handspike on the right, (the right and left 
being that of the piece unlimbered) the gunner near 
the end. and No. 5 at the middle and on his right, 
raise the trail and carry it round to the left, Nos. 1 
and 2 bear down upon the muzzle, and Nos. 3 and 
4, each using both hands, bring the wheels round. 
No. 3 turning the right wheel to the rear, and No. 4 
the left wheel to the front ; the piece about, the trail 
is lowered, Nos. 3 and 4 step within the wheels to 
avoid the limber, Nos. 1 and 2 remain at the muzzle, 
and the gunner and No. 5 step between Nos. 3 and 
4 and the trail, the gunner first taking out the hand- 
spike and passing it to No. 4, by whom it is put up. 
As soon as the limber is in front of the piece, the 
gunner commands, halt — limber up, upon which the 
limber halts, and the gunner and No. 5 raise the trail 
by means of the handles, and assisted by Nos. 3 and 
4 at the wheels, and Nos. 1 and 2 at the head of the 
carriage, run the piece forward, and place the lunette 
upon the pintle ; the gunner then puts in the key, 
and all resume their posts. If necessary. Nos. 6 and 
*7 will assist at the trail. Limber to the right (or 
left) turn the trail to the right or left, and limber up 
as before, the limber inclining and taking its place in 
front by a right or left wheel. When the piece is 
not drawn by horses, Nos. 6 and 7 take hold of the 
end of the pole, and bring the limber into its position. 



222 ARTILLERY, 

At the command limber to the front, the caisson closes 
upon the piece, to the right or left, wheels, and halts 
at its proper interval from the piece ; to the rear, the 
caisson stands fast, unless ordered to move. 

UNLIMBERING AND COMING INTO ACTION. 

To the front, command : 

Action— FRONT. 

At this command, the gunner takes out the key, 
and, assisted by No. 5, raises the trail from the pin- 
tle, and commands drive on, upon which the limber re- 
verses to the left, the horses, for this purpose, wheel- 
ing to the left and rear, in such a manner as to make 
the limber pass over the shortest convenient curve ; 
it proceeds to the rear, reverses to the left again, and 
halts so as to bring the heads of the leading horses 
six yards from the end of the trail handspike ; at the 
same time that the limber moves off, the piece is 
brought about in all respects as in limbering to the 
front, except that the gunner and No. 5, without 
lowering the trail, carry it about, each by means of 
the handle on his own side; Nos. 6 and 7, if necessary, 
assist at the trail. As soon as the piece is brought 
about and the trail lowered, No. 4 takes out the 
handspike and passes it to the gunner, who fixes it 
in the trail ; No. 1 takes out the sponge, No. 3 un- 
keying it; No. 4 takes the linstock, if used, and 
plants it on the ground, or prepares the lanyard ; all 
then resume their posts. 

To the right or left, command : 

ACTION— Bight (or left.) 
The piece is unlimbered and placed in the required 
direction, and the limber wheels to the left or right, 
and takes its place in rear by reversing left or right. 



ARTILLERY. 223 

To the rear, command : 

In Battery. 

The piece is unlimbered as before, and the limber 
moved directly to the rear, and takes its place by 
coming to the left about. 

In coming into action, the caisson, at the command 
action front, reverses to the left, proceeds to the rear 
and takes its place, reversing to the left again. Ac- 
tion right (or left), it wheels to the left (or right), and 
takes its place by reversing. la battery, it proceeds 
directly to the rear, and takes its place by coming to 
the left about. When the piece is not drawn by 
horses, Nos. 6 and 7 carry the limber to its proper 
place. 

MOVING THE PIECE BY HANI). 

To the front, piece limbered, command : 

Forward— MARCH. 

At the command forward, Nos. 6 and 7 seize the 
end of the pole with both hands; the gunner and 
No. 5, facing towards the pole, seize the splinter bar 
with one hand, and the pole with the other; Nos. 3 
and 4 seize the spokes of the hind wheels with both 
hands, and Nos. 1 and 2 apply both hands at the 
head of the carriage ; at the command march, all act- 
ing together, urge the piece forward. 

To the front, piece unlimbered, command : 

1. By hand to the front 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the gunner seizes the end of 
the handspike, and Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, the spokes of 
the wheels, No. 1 with his left hand. No. 4 with his 
right, Nos. 2 and 3 with both hands. No. 1 holds 



224 ARTILLERY. 

the sponge in his right hand, the staff resting upon 
his right shoulder, sponge, head down, and No. 4 
holds the portfire-stock and linstock in his left hand. 
At the second command, they move the piece for- 
ward, gunner raising the trail. 

To the rear, piece unlimbered, command : 

1. By hand to the rear. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the gunner, facing to the 
rear, seizes the handspike with his right hand ; Nos. 
1, 2, 3, and 4, seize the wheels, as before, except that 
No. 1 holding the sponge in his left hand, his right 
at the wheel, and No. 4 holding the portfire stock 
and linstock in his right hand, uses the left at the 
wheel. At the second command, they move the 
piece to the rear, the gunner raising the trail. In 
moving the piece by hand, all halt, and resume their 
posts at the command halt. 

EXERCISE OF SEVERAL PIECES. 

For this exercise the men are drawn up in line, 
divided into detachments, and told off in numbers by 
the gunner, or chief of piece, who then takes post on 
the right. There is an officer assigned to every two 
detachments, whose post is two paces in front of 
their center; the captain then wheels the detach- 
ments into column, or faces them to a flank, to the 
right or left, as the battery is to be approached. 
When in column, the gunner, or chief of piece, is two 
paces in front of the center of his detachment ; when 
faced to a flank, by the side of the leading front rank 
man. In both cases, the officers commanding de- 
tachments are two paces from the pivot flank, and 
opposite the center of their detachments ; the detach- 
ments are then marched to the battery, and when 
near it, the command is: 



ARTILLERY. 225 



Detachments, opposite your pieces. 

Each is halted by the gunner, or chief of piece, 
when opposite its piece. They are wheeled into line, 
or faced to the front by the captain, and then ordered 
and marched to their posts by the commands and 
means already prescribed. The men are exercised 
in their duty, and superintended carefully by their 
officers. To leave the battery, detachments are or- 
dered to the front or rear, wheeled into column, 
or faced to a flank, closed to proper distance, and ' 
marched from the battery in the manner described 
for marching to it. 



DIRECTIONS 

TO BE OBSERVED IN THE USE OF CANNON. 

For Field Service. — Six and twelve-pounder guns ; 
twelve and twenty-four-pounder howitzers. 

For Mountain Service. — Six and twelve-pounder 
mountain howitzers. 

Cartridge bags for cannon, are made of serge, flan- 
nel, or any material prepared entirely of wool, and 
free from cotton or thread ; also, close, so that the 
powder will not sift through. The bags are sewed 
with woolen yarn. Bags for blank cartridges are 
made by sewing together two rectangular pieces of 
stuff, with semi-circular ends. 

For six-pounder field pieces, the pieces are cut in 
length, 8*5 inches; in width, 6 inches. Sewing 
length, 8 inches; width, 5*2 inches?. These will fit 
8 



226 ARTILLERY. 

the bore. The mouth of the cartridge is tied with 
woolen yarn. 

A good slow match may be made of cotton rope, 
saturated in a solution of saltpetre and water, or 
sugar of lead and water ; then twist the rope until it 
becomes hard, and dry well — it is then fit for use. 

Quick match may be made by saturating common 
candle wick in a paste of mealed powder, mixed with 
alcohol or spirits of wine, in which gum arabic has 
been dissolved ; then hang up to dry, and it is fit for 
use. Common high-proof whisky may be used with- 
out gum arabic. 

To make priming tubes for cannon, draw a piece 
of quick match through a common quill that will fit 
the vent. 

The weight of powder for blank cartridge for can- 
non, is one-fourth the weight of the ball. For six 
pounder, 1-J- lbs. powder; for twelve -pounder, 3 lbs. 
powder. 

Spermaceti oil is best for greasing arms ; for clean- 
ing arms, rotten-stone and sweet oil. 

Blank cartridges for musket, 117 grains powder; 
do. U. S. Rifle, 90 grains powder; do. for Pistol, 45 
grains powder. 



APPENDIX 



EXTRACTS FROM ARMY REGULATIONS. 

DAILY DETAILS AND DUTIES IN CAMP. 

The daily duties must be announced in orders, and 
the officers to perform it are to be detailed according 
to the rules of the roster. 

The number and rank of the officers for daily duty, 
are to be regulated by the strength and circumstan- 
ces of the camp or garrison. 

Independently of the officers detailed for guard 
duty, the officers for daily duty will be as follows : 

In large camps there will be a general officer of the 
day for each division, a field officer of the day for 
each brigade, a captain of the day for each regiment, 
and such general and regimental staff officers of the 
day, as may be necessary to attend to the various 
details, and to receive and execute orders, according 
to their respective stations. In every regiment and 
garrison, besides the officer of the day, there will be 
detailed daily, if the strength of the garrison will per- 
mit, a subaltern, four non-commissioned officers, a 
drummer, and such fatigue parties as circumstances 
may require for the police of regiment or garrison. In 



228 APPENDIX. 

small commands, subalterns may be detailed for duty 
as officers of the day, and they will also discharge the 
duties of officers of police. The officers thus detailed 
are to remain in camp or garrison during their tours 
of duty. 

The general of the day is to superintend the regu- 
larity and discipline of the camp in every particular ; 
he is to visit the guards of the camps and the out- 
posts ; he is to call out and inspect the inlying pickets 
as often and at such times as he thinks proper; he is 
to receive all reports in camp, and make immediate 
communication of any extraordinary circumstance to 
the general-in-chief. 

The field officer of the day has the immediate super- 
intendence of the camp of the brigade ; he is to be 
present at the mounting and dismounting of all the 
brigade-guard, particularly of the inlying pickets 
which are always considered under his command ; he 
is to call them out to inspect them, to order such pa- 
trols from them as he may judge necessary to insure 
the regularity and order of the camp.; and in the 
event of the inlying pickets being ordered to march 
he is to march with them. 

The captain or subaltern of the day, of each regi- 
ment, superintends the cleanliness and regularity of 
the camp or quarters of the regiment ; he attends the 
parading of all regimental guards, and orders the roll 
to be called frequently, and at unexpected periods, 
and reports everything extraordinary to the com- 
manding officer ; he is to visit the hospital at various 
hours, and make a report of its state to the command- 
ing officer of the regiment or garrison. 

The adjutant of the day, of the brigade, is to assist 
the general staff officer of the day in the various de- 
tails of it, and, in his absence, to perform his duty as 
such and attend for orders at head-quarters. 



APPENDIX. 229 

The officer of police, under the direction of the 
officer of the day, is to make a general inspection 
into the cleanliness of the camp or garrison. 

HONORS TO BE PAID BY THE TROOPS. 

The President is to be saluted with the highest 
honors — all standards and colors dropping, officers 
saluting, drums beating and trumpets sounding. 

The same compliments will be paid to the Vice- 
President. 

A Major-General commanding-in-chief, is to be re- 
ceived by cavalry, with swords drawn, trumpets 
sounding the march, and all the officers saluting, 
standards dropping; by infantry, with drums beating 
the march, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms 
presented. 

A Major-General is to be received, by cavalry, with 
swords drawn, trumpets sounding twice the trumpet 
nourish, and officers saluting ; by infantry with three 
ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms 
presented. 

A Brigadier-General is to be received, by cavalry, 
with swords drawn, trumpets sounding once the 
trumpet nourish, and officers saluting ; by infantry, 
with two ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, 
and arms presented. 

An Adjutant-General, or Inspector-General, if un- 
der the rank of a general officer, is to be received at 
a review, or inspection of the troops under arms — by- 
cavalry, with swords drawn, officers saluting ; by in- 
fantry, officers saluting, and arms presented. The 
same honors to be paid to any field officer, authorized 
to review and inspect the troops. When the inspect- 
ing officer is junior in rank to the officer on the 
parade, and in the command of the troops to be 
inspected, no compliments will be paid ; he will be 



230 APPENDIX, 

received only with swords drawn and arms shoul- 
dered. 

All guards are to turn out and present arms to 
general officers as often as they pass them, except 
the personal guards of general officers, which turn 
out only to the Generals whose guards they are, and 
to officers of superior rank. 

To Colonels, the guards of their own regiments turn 
out and present arms once a day ; after which, they 
turn out with shouldered arms. 

To Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors, their own 
guards turn out with shouldered arms once a day ; 
at other times with ordered arms. 

When the command of a regiment devolves on a 
Lieutenant-Colonel, or Major, the regimental guards 
will pay him the same compliment as is ordered for 
the Colonel. 

Officers in command of forts or garrison, have a 
right to the complimentary honors from the troops 
under their command, which are due to the rank, one 
degree higher than the rank they actually hold in the 
line of the army. 

To the Secretary of State, Treasury, War and Navy 
Departments, and other members of the Cabinet, to 
the Chief Justice, the President pro. tempore of the 
Senate, and Speaker of the House of Representatives 
of the United States, and to Governors within their 
respective States and Territories, the same honors 
will be paid as are specified for a Major-General com- 
manding-in-chief. 

Officers belonging to any foreign service, who may 
call at any camp or garrison, by invitation from the 
commander of the camp or garrison, may be compli- 
mented with the honors due to their rank or quality. 

American and Foreign Envoys or Ministers will 
be received with the compliments due to a Major- 
General. 



■ APPENDIX. 231 

The colors of a regiment passing a guard, are to 
be saluted with the utmost respect — the trumpet 
sounding, and the drums beating a march. 

Where two regiments meet on their march, the 
regiment inferior in rank is to halt, and form in pa- 
rade order, and salute the other regiment, which pro- 
ceeds on its march, with swords drawn and bayonets 
fixed, trumpets sounding or drums beating, standards 
or colors flying until it has cleared the front of the 
regiment which has halted. 

Where guards present their arms, the officers, on 
all occasions, salute with their swords. 

Where general officers, or persons entitled to sa- 
lute, pass in the rear of a guard, the officer is only to 
make his men stand shouldered, and not to face his 
guard about, or beat his drum. 

Where general officers, or persons entitled to a sa- 
lute, pass guards, while in the act of relieving, both 
guards are to salute, receiving the word of command 
from the senior officer of the whole. 

All guards are to be under arms when armed par- 
ties approach their posts : and to parties commanded 
by commissioned officers, they are to present their 
arms, drums beating a march, and officers saluting. 

No compliments by guards or sentinels will be 
paid between retreat and reveille, except as prescribed 
for grand rounds. 

All guards and sentinels are to pay the same com- 
pliments to the officers of the navy, marines and mili- 
tia in the service of the United States, as are directed 
to be paid to the officers of the army, according to 
their relative ranks. 

It is equally the duty of non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers, at all times and in all situations, to pay 
the proper compliments to officers of the navy and 
marines, and to officers of other regiments, when in 



232 APPENDIX. 

uniform, as to officers of their own particular regi- 
ments and corps. 

Courtesy among military men is indispensable to 
discipline. The good or the brave officer or soldier, 
is always respectful towards superiors. His respect 
will not be confined to martial obedience, but will be 
extended to other occasions. Thus it is always the 
duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first, the cus- 
tomary salutation, and of the superior to return such 
complimentary notice. 

Sergeants with swords drawn, will salute by bring- 
ing them to a recover — with muskets, by bringing 
the left hand across the body, so as to strike the mus- 
ket near the right shoulder. Corporals out of the 
ranks will carry their muskets at a shoulder as ser- 
geants, and salute in like manner. 

When a soldier without arms, or with side arms 
only, meets an officer, he will continue to move on, 
but he is to raise his hand to his cap, looking, at the 
same time, in a respectful and soldier-like manner at 
the officer, who will make a suitable acknowledgment 
to the compliment thus offered. 

A non-commissioned officer or soldier being seated 
and without particular occupation, will rise on the 
approach of an officer, and make the customary salu- 
tation. If standing, it would be proper to turn to- 
wards the officer for the same purpose. If the par- 
ties remain in the same place or on the same ground, 
such compliments would not in general be repeated. 

SALUTES. 

The national salute is determined by the number 
of States composing the Union, at the rate of one gun 
for each State. 

The President of the United States alone is to re- 
ceive a salute of twenty-one guns. 



APPENDIX. 233 

The Vice-President is to receive a salute of seven- 
teen guns. 

The Heads of the great Executive Departments of 
the National Government, the Major-General com- 
manding the army, the Governors of States and Ter- 
ritories within their respective jurisdictions, fifteen 
guns. 

A Major-General, thirteen guns. 

M Brigadier-General, eleven guns. 

Foreign Ships of War will be saluted in return for 
a similar compliment, gun for gun, on notice being 
officially received of such intention. If there be seve- 
ral posts in sight of, or within six miles of each other, 
the principal only shall reciprocate compliments with 
ships passing. 

Officers of the navy will be saluted according to 
relative rank. 

Foreign officers invited to visit a fort or post, may 
be saluted according to their relative rank. 

Envoys and Ministers of the United States and 
foreign powers, are to be saluted with thirteen guns. 

All officers of the army having rank above that of 
colonel, whether of the line or staff, by brevet or oth« 
erwise, will be complimented, on official visits, by 
salutes according to their highest rank, provided they 
be senior to the officer in command where the visit 
is made. 

A general officer will be saluted but once in a year 
at each post, and only when notice of his intention to 
visit the post has been given. 

Salutes to individuals are to be fired on their ar- 
rival only. 

A national salute will be fired at meridian, on the 
anniversary of the Independence of the United States, 
at each military post and camp. 



234 APPENDIX.. 



ESCORTS OF HONOR. 

Escorts of honor may be composed of cavalry or 
infantry, or both, according to circumstances. They 
are guards of honor, for the purpose of receiving and 
escorting personages of high rank, civil or military. 
The troops for this purpose will be selected for their 
soldierly appearance and superior discipline. 

The manner of receiving and escorting the person- 
age is as follows : 

The escort will be drawn up in line, the center op- 
posite to the place where the personage presents him- 
self, with an interval between the wings to receive 
the personage and his retinue. On his appearance, 
he will be received with the honors due to his rank. 
When he has taken his place in the line, the whole 
will be wheeled into platoons or companies, as the 
case may be, and take up the march. The same 
ceremony will be observed, and the same honors paid 
on his leaving the escort. 

When the position of the escort is at a considera- 
ble distance from the point where the personage is 
expected to be received, as, for instance, where a 
court-yard or wharf intervenes, a double line of sen- 
tinels will be posted from that point to the escort, 
facing inwards, and the sentinels will successively 
salute as the personage passes. 

An officer will be appointed to attend the person- 
age escorted, to bear such communications as he may 
have to make to the commander of the escort. 

FUNERAL HONORS. 

On the receipt of official intelligence of the death 
of the President of the United States, at any post or 
camp, the commanding officer shall, on the following 
day, cause a gun to be fired at every half-hour, be- 



APPENDIX. 235 

ginning at sunrise and ending at sunset. When 
posts are contiguous, the firing will take place at the 
post only commanded by the superior officer. 

On the day of the interment of a Major-General 
commanding-in-chief, a gun will be fired at every 
half-hour until the procession moves, beginning at 
sunrise. 

The funeral escort of a Major-General commanding- 
in-chief, shall consist of a regiment of infantry, a 
squadron of cavalry, and six pieces of artillery. 

That of a Major-General, a regiment of infantry, a 
squadron of cavalry, and four pieces of artillery. 

That of a Brigadier- General, a regiment of infantry, 
one company of cavalry, and two pieces of artillery. 

That of a Colonel, a regiment. 

That of a Lieutenant-Colonel, six companies. 

That of a Major, four companies. 

That of a captain, one company. 

That of a subaltern, half a company. 

The funeral escort shall always be commanded by 
an officer of the same rank with the deceased, or if 
none such be present, by one of the next inferior 
grade. 

The funeral escort of a non-commissioned staff 
officer, shall consist of sixteen rank and file, com- 
manded by a sergeant. 

That of a sergeant, of fourteen rank and file, com- 
manded by a sergeant. 

That of a corporal, of twelve rank and file, com- 
manded by a corporal ; and 

That of a private, of eight rank and file, commanded 
by a corporal. 

The escort will be formed in two ranks, opposite 
to the quarters or tent of deceased, with shouldered 
arms and bayonets fixed, the artillery and cavalry on 
the right of the infantry. 



236 APPENDIX. 

On the appearance of the corpse the officer com- 
manding the escort will command : 

Present— ARMS, 

when the honors due to the deceased will be paid by 
the drums and trumpets. The music will then play 
an appropriate air, and the coffin will then be taken 
to the right, where it will be halted. 
The commander will next order : 

1. Shoulder — ARMS. 2. By company, {or platoon,) 
left wheel. 3. MARCH. 4. Column forward. 5. 
Guide right. 6. MARCH. 

The column will be marched, in common time, to 
appropriate music; and on reaching the grave, will 
take a direction so that the guides shall be next to 
the grave. When the center of the column is oppo- 
site the grave, the commander will order : 

1. Column. 2. HALT. 3. Right into line, wheel. 
4. MARCH. 

The coffin is then brought along the front to the 
opposite side of the grave, and the commander then 
orders : 

Present— ARMS. 

And when the coffin reaches the grave, he adds : 

1. Shoulder— ARMS. 2. Order— ARMS. 3. Pa- 
rade— REST. 
After the funeral service is performed, and the 
coffin is lowered into the grave, the commander will 
order: 

1. Attention, company. 2. Shoulder — ARMS. 3. 
Load at will 4„ LOAD. 



APPENDIX. 237 

when three rounds of small arms will be fired by 
the escort, taking care to elevate the pieces. 
This being done, the commander will order : 

1. By company, {or platoon,) right vjheel. 2. MARCH. 

3. Column forward. 4. Guide left. 5. Quick — 

MARCH. 

The music will not begin to play until the escort 
is clear of the inclosure. 

The pall-bearers, six in number, will be selected 
from the grade of the deceased, or from the grade or 
grades next above or below it. 

At the funeral of an officer, as many in commission, 
of the army, division, brigade, or regiment, according 
to the rank of the deceased, as can conveniently be 
spared from other duties, will join in procession in 
uniform and with side arms. The funeral of a non- 
commissioned officer or private will be attended in 
like manner, by the non-commissioned officers or pri- 
vates of the regiment or company, according to the 
rank of the deceased, with side arms only. 

Persons joining in the procession, follow the coffin 
in the inverse order of their rank. 

The usual badge of military mourning is a piece of 
black crape around the left arm, and also upon the 
sword hilt, and will be worn when in full or in un- 
dress. 

As family mourning, crape will be worn by officers, 
(when in uniform) only around the left arm. 

The drums of a funeral escort will be covered with 
black crape, or thin black serge. 

Funeral honors will be paid to deceased officers, 
without military rank, according to their assimilated 
grades. 

INSPECTION OF THE TROOPS. 

The inspection of troops as a division, regiment, or 



238 APPENDIX. 

other body composing a garrison or command, not 
less than a company, will generally be preceded by a 
review. 

There will be certain periodical inspections, to 
wit : 

1. The commanders of regiments and posts will 
make an inspection of their commands on the last 
day of every month. 

2. Captains will inspect their companies every 
Sunday morning; and Lieutenants will inspect their 
squads every Wednesday morning. 

3. Medical officers having charge of hospitals, will 
also make a thorough inspection of them every Sun- 
day morning. 

4. Inspection when troops are mustered for pay- 
ment. 

Besides these inspections, frequent visits will be 
made by the commanding officer, company, and med- 
ical officers, during the month, to the men's quarters, 
the hospital, guard-house, etc. 

FORM OF INSPECTION. 

The present example embraces a battalion of in- 
fantry. The inspecting officer and the field officers 
and staff officers, will be on foot. 

The battalion being in the order of battle, the 
Colonel will cause it to break into open column of 
companies, right in front. He will next order the 
ranks to be opened, when the color-rank and color- 
guard, under the direction of the Adjutant, will take 
post ten paces in front, and the band ten paces in 
rear of the column. 

The Colonel seeing the ranks aligned, will com- 
mand: 

1. Officers and Sergeants. 2. To the front of your 
companies. 3. MARCH. 



APPENDIX. 239 

I The officers will form themselves in one rank, eight 
pices, and the non-commissioned officers in one rank, 
sir paces, in advance, along the whole fronts of their 
respective companies, from right to left, in the order 
of seniority ; the pioneers and music of each company 
in one rank, two paces behind the non-commissioned 
officers. 

The Colonel will next command : 

1. Field and staff. 2. To the front— MARCH. 

The commissioned officers thus designated will 
form themselves in one rank, six paces in front of 
the colors, from right to left, in the order of seniority ; 
and the non-commissioned staff, in a similar manner, 
two paces in rear of the preceding rank. The Colonel 
seeing the movement executed, will take post on the 
right of the Lieutenant-Colonel, and wait the ap- 
proach of the inspecting officer. But such of the field 
officers as may be superior in rank to the Inspector, 
will not take post in front of the battalion. 

The inspection will commence in front. After in- 
specting the dress and general appearance of the field, 
and commissioned staff under arms, the Inspector, 
accompanied by these officers, will pass down the 
open column, looking at every rank in front and 
rear. 

The Colonel will now command: 

1. Order arms. 2. REST, 
when the Inspector will proceed to make a minute 
inspection of the several ranks or divisions, in suc- 
cession, commencing in front. 

As the Inspector approaches the non-commissioned 
staff, color-rank, the color-guard and the band, the 
Adjutant will give the necessary orders for the in- 
spection of arms, boxes and knapsacks. The colors 



240 APPENDIX. 

will be planted firm in the ground, to enable the color- 
bearers to display the contents of their knapsacks. 
The non-commissioned staff may be dismissed as soon 
as inspected ; but the color-rank and color-guard v r ill 
remain until the colors are to be escorted to the place 
from which they were taken. 

As the Inspector successively approaches the com- 
panies, the captains will command : 

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Inspection of arms. 
The inspecting officer will then go through the 
whole company and minutely inspect the arms, ac- 
couterments, and dress of each soldier. After this is 
done, the captain will command: 

Opera— BOXES, 
when the ammunition and the boxes will be ex- 
amined. 

The captain will then command : 

1. Shoulder— ARMS. 2. Close order. 3. MARCH. 
4. Order— ARMS. 5. Stack— ARMS. 6. To the 
rear, open order. V. MARCH. 8. Front rank, 
about face. 9. Unsling knapsacks. 10. Open knap- 
sacks. 

The sergeants will face inward and close upon the 
center at the second and third commands, and will 
stack their arms at the fifth command; at the sixth 
and seventh commands, they will face outward, and 
resume their positions. When the ranks are closed, 
preparatory to take arms, the sergeants will also close 
upon the center, and at the word, take their arms 
and resume their places. 

The knapsacks will be placed at the feet of the 
men, the flaps from them, with the great coats on the 
flaps, and the knapsacks leaning on the great coats. 



APPENDIX. 241 

In this position the Inspector will examine their con- 
tents, or so many of them as he may think necessary, 
commencing with the non-commissioned officers, the 
men standing at attention. 

When the Inspector has passed through the com- 
pany, the captain will command : 

ifepacft— KNAPSACKS, 
when each soldier will repack and buckle up his knap- 
sack, leaving it on the ground, the number upwards, 
turned from him, and then stand at rest. 
The captain will then command : 

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Sling — KNAP- 
SACKS. 

At the word sling, each soldier will take his knap- 
sack, holding it by the inner straps, and stand erect ; 
at the last word, he will replace it on his back. 

The captain will continue : 

4. Front rank, about face. 5. Close order. 6. 

MARCH. 7. Take— ARMS. 8. Shoulder— 

ARMS. 9. Officers and sergeants, to your posts. 

10. MARCH, 
and will cause the company to file off to their tents 
or quarters, except the company that is to re-escort 
the colors, which will await the further orders of the 
Colonel. 

In an extensive column, some of the rearmost com- 
panies may, after the inspection of dress and general 
appearance, be permitted to stack arms, until just 
before the Inspector approaches them, when they 
will be directed to take arms and resume their posi- 
tion. 

The inspection of the troops being ended, the field 
and staff will next accompany the Inspector to the 



242 APPENDIX. 

hospital, magazine, arsenal, quarters, sutler's shop, 
guard house, and such other places as he may think 
proper to inspect. The captains and subalterns will 
precede him in his visits to their companies and sec- 
tions respectively. 

The hospital being at all times an object of particu- 
lar interest, it will be critically and minutely in- 
spected. 

The men will be formed in the company quarters 
in front of their respective bunks, and on the entrance 
of the Inspector the word Attention will be given by 
the senior non-commissioned officer present, when the 
whole will salute with the hand, without uncovering. 

The inspector will examine the general arrange- 
ment of the interior of the quarters, the bunks, bed- 
ding, cooking and table utensils, and such other 
objects as may present themselves ; and afterwards 
the exterior. 

The Adjutant will exhibit to the Inspector the 
regimental books and papers, including those relating 
to the transactions of the Council of Administrations. 
The company books and papers will also be exhibited, 
the whole together, generally at the Adjutant's office, 
and in the presence of the officers not otherwise par- 
ticularly engaged. 

The inspection of cavalry and artillery will conform 
to the principles laid down in the foregoing para- 
graphs, regard being had to the system of instruction 
for those arms of service respectively. 

PARADE REST. 

On all parades of ceremony, such as Reviews, Guard 
Mounting, at Troop Retreat Parades, Etc., instead of 
the word rest, which allows the men to move or 
change the position of their bodies, the command 
will be : 



APPENDIX. 243 

Parade— REST. 

At the last word of this command, the soldier will 
cany the right foot six inches in rear of the left heel, 
the left knee slightly bent, the body upright upon 
the right leg ; the piece (if at ordered arms) resting 
against the hollow of the right shoulder, the hands 
crossed in front, the backs of them outward, and the 
left hand uppermost. 

If at the command parade rest, the men are at 
support arms, they will bring up smartly the right 
hand to the small of the stock, carry back the right 
foot and stand at ease as above. 

At the command attention, the soldier will resume 
the correct position at ordered or support arms. 

In the position here indicated, the soldier will re- 
main silent and motionless; and it is particularly 
enjoined upon all officers to cause the command above 
given on the part of the soldier to be executed with 
great briskness and spirit. 

Officers on all duties under arms, are to have their 
swords drawn, without waiting for any commands for 
that purpose. 

DRESS PARADE. 

There shall be daily at least one dress parade, 
which may be at troop or retreat, as the commanding 
officer may direct, or at both beats should he think 
proper so to order. 

The parade at troop will be termed the morning 
parade, and that at retreat, the evening parade. In 
either case, it will be conducted as follows : 

A signal will be beat, or sounded, half an hour be- 
fore troop or retreat, for the music to assemble on the 
regimental parade. At the same time, each company 
will turn out under arms, on its own parade, for roll- 
call and inspection by its own officers. 



244 APPENDIX. 

Ten minutes after that signal the Adjutant's call 
will be given, when the companies will be marched, 
(the band playing) to the regimental parade, where 
they will be formed in their relative positions in the 
order of battle, arms ordered and at a rest, the officers 
at their post on foot with swords drawn, the Adju- 
tant on the right of the line. The music will be 
formed in two ranks on the right of the Adjutant, 
and from the Adjutant's call to troop or retreat, the 
band will play. The senior officer present will take 
command of the parade, and will take post at a suita- 
ble distance in front, opposite the center, facing the 
line. 

Ten minutes after the Adjutant's call, the Adjutant 
will order the music to beat off, when it will com- 
mence on the right, beat in front of the line to the 
left, and back to its place on the right. 

When the music has ceased, the Adjutant will step 
two paces to the front, face the line, and command : 

1. Attention. 2. Battalion. 3. Shoulder — ARMS. 
4. Prepare to open ranks. 5. To the rear, open 
order. 6. MARCH. 1. Right— DRESS. 
At the sixth command, the ranks will be opened 
according to the system laid down in the Infantry 
Tactics, the commissioned officers marching to the 
front, the company officers four paces, field officers 
six paces, opposite to their positions in the order of 
battle, where they will halt and dress. The Adju- 
tant seeing the ranks aligned, will command : 

Front, 
and march along the front to the center, face to the 
right, and pass the line of company officers eight or 
ten paces, where he will come to the right-about and 
give the word, 



APPENDIX. 245 

Present— ARKS, 
when arms will be presented, officers saluting. 

Seeing this executed, he will face about to the 
commanding officer, salute, and report, " Sir, the 
parade is formed." The Adjutant will then, on inti- 
mation to that effect, take his station three paces on 
the left of the commanding officer, one pace retired, 
passing round his rear. 

The commanding officer having acknowledged the 
salute of the line, by touching his hat, will, after the 
Adjutant has taken his post, draw his sword, and 
command : 

1. Battalion. 2. Shoulder— ARMS, 
and add such exercises as he may think proper, in- 
cluding with : 

Order— ARMS. 
The adjutant will now pass round the right of the 
commanding officer, advance upon the line, halt mid- 
way between him and the line of company officers, 
and command : 

1. First sergeants, to the front and center. 2. MARCH. 

At the first word they will shoulder arms as ser- 
geants, march two paces to the front and face • in- 
wards. At the second word, they will march to the 
center and halt. The Adjutant will then order: 

1. Front— FACE. 2. Report, 
At the last word, each in succession, beginning on 
the right, will salute, by bringing the left hand 
smartly across the breast to the right shoulder, and 
report the result of the roll-call, previously made on 
the company parade. 



246 APPENDIX. 

The Adjutant again commands: 

1. First sergeants, outward — FACE. 2. To your 

posts— MARCH, 
when they will resume their places and order arms. 
The Adjutant will now face to the commanding offi- 
cer, salute, and give the result of the first sergeant's 
reports. The commanding officer will next direct 
the orders to be read, when the Adjutant will face 
about and announce : 

Attention to orders. 

He will then read the orders. 

The orders having been read, the Adjutant will 
face to the commanding officer, salute, and report; 
when, on an intimation from the commander, he will 
face again to the line, and announce : 

The parade is dismissed. 
All officers will now return their swords, face in- 
wards, and close on the Adjutant, he having taken 
position in their line, the field officers or the flanks. 
The Adjutant gives the word : 

1. Front— FACE. 2. Forward— MARCH, 
when they will march forward, dressing on the cen- 
ter, the music playing, and when within six paces of 
the commander, the Adjutant will give the word : 

Halt. 
The officers will then salute the commanding officer 
by raising the hand to the cap, and there remain un- 
til he shall have communicated to them such instruc- 
tions as he may have to give, or intimates that the 
ceremony is finished. As the officers disperse, the 
first sergeants will close the ranks of their respective 



APPENDIX. 24 1 

companies, and march them to the company parades, 
where they will be dismissed, the band continuing 
to play until the companies clear the regimental 
parade. 

All company officers and men will be present at 
dress parades, unless especially excused, or on some 
duty incompatible with such attendance. 

The dress parade being essential to insure the com- 
plete equipment and neatness of the troops, as well 
as to exhibit them under arms, at least once a day, 
commanding officers will be held responsible that 
they are not dispensed with, except on extraordinary 
and urgent occasions. 

COLOR SALUTE. 

In the ranks, the color-bearer, whether at a halt or 
in march, will always carry the heel of the color- 
lance supported at the right hip, the right hand gen- 
erally placed on the lance at the hight of the shoul- 
der, to hold it steady. When the color has to render 
honors, the color-bearer will salute as follows : 

At the distance of six paces slip the right hand 
along the lance to the hight of the eye ; lower the 
lance by straightening the arm to its full extent, the 
heel of the lance remaining at the hip, and bring 
back the lance to the habitual position when the per- 
son saluted shall be passed, or shall have passed, six 
paces. 

REVIEW. 

Preparatory to a review, the Adjutant will cause 
a camp-color to be placed eighty or a hundred paces, 
or more, according to the length of the line, in front 
of, and opposite to, where the center of the battalion 
will rest, where the reviewing officer is supposed to 
take his station ; and although he may choose to quit 
that position, still the color is to be considered as the 



248 APPENDIX. 

point to which all the movements and formations are 
relative. 

The Adjutant will also cause points to be marked, 
at suitable distances, for the wheelings of the divis- 
ion ; so that their right flanks, in marching past, shall 
only be about four paces from the camp-color, where 
it is supposed the reviewing officer places himself to 
receive the salute. 

The battalion being formed in the order of battle, 
at shouldered arms, the Colonel will command : 

1. Battalion prepare for review. 2. To the rear, open 
order. 3. MARCH. 

At the word march, the field and staff officers dis- 
mount ; the company officers and the color-rank ad- 
vance four paces in front of the front rank, and place 
themselves opposite to their respective places, in the- 
order of battle. The staff officers place themselves, 
according to rank, three paces on the right of the 
rank of company officers, and one pace from each 
other; the music advances through the center and 
forms in two ranks, (the band in front,) between the 
colors and the line ; the color-guard replace the color- 
rank; the Sergeant-Major and the Quarter-Master- 
Sergeant take post one pace from each other, and 
three paces on the right of the front rank of the bat- 
talion. 

When the ranks are aligned, the Colonel will com- 
mand: 

Front, 

and place himself eight paces, and the Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Major will place themselves two paces in 
front of the rank of company officers, and opposite to 
their respective places in the order of battle, all facing 
to the front. 



APPENDIX. 249 

When the reviewing officer presents himself before 
the center, and is fitly or sixty paces distant, the 
Colonel will face about, and command : 

Present— ARMS, 

and resume his front. The men present arms, and 
the officers salute, so as to drop their swords with the 
last motion of the firelock. The non-commissioned 
staff salute by bringing the sword to a poise, the hilt 
resting on the breast, the blade in front of the face, 
inclining a little outward. 

The music will play, and all the drums beat, ac- 
cording to the rank of the reviewing officer. The 
colors only salute such persons as, from their rank, 
and by regulation, are entitled to that honor. If the 
reviewing officer be junior in rank to the commandant 
of parade, no compliment will be paid to him, b\it he 
will be received with arms carried. 

The reviewing officer having halted, and acknowl- 
edged the salute of the line, by touching or raising 
his cap or hat, the Colonel will face about and com- 
mand: 

Shoulder— ARMS, 

when the men shoulder their pieces ; the officers and 
non-commissioned staff recover their swords, with the 
last motion, and Colonel faces to the front. 

The reviewing officer will go towards the right, the 
whole remaining perfectly steady, without paying 
any further compliment, while he passes along the 
front of the battalion, and proceeds round the left 
flank, and along the rear of the file-closers to the 
right. While the reviewing officer is going round the 
battalion, the band will play, and will cease when he 
has returned to the right flank of the troops. 

When the reviewing officer turns off to place him- 



250 APPENDIX. 

self by the camp-color in front, the Colonel will face 
to the line, and command : 

1. Close order. 2. MARCH. 

At the first command, the field and company offi- 
cers will face to the right about, and at the second 
command, all persons, except the Colonel, will re- 
sume their places in the order of battle ; the field and 
staff officers mount. 

The reviewing officer having taken his position 
near the camp color, the Colonel will command: 

1. By company, right wheel. 2. Quick — MARCH. 
3. Pass in review. 4. Column, forward. 5. Guide 
right. 6. MARCH. 

The battalion, in column of company, right in front, 
will then, in common time, and at shouldered arms, 
be put in motion ; the Colonel four paces in front of 
the captain of the leading company ; the Lieutenant- 
Colonel on a line with the leading company; the 
Major on a line with the rear company ; the Adju- 
tant on a line with the second company : the Ser- 
geant-Major on a line with the company next preced- 
ing the rear, each six paces from the flank (left) 
opposite to the reviewing officer ; the staff officers in 
one rank, according to the order of precedency, from 
the right, four paces in rear of the column ; the music 
preceded by the principal musician, six paces before 
the Colonel ; the pioneers preceded by a corporal, four 
paces before the principal musician, and the Quarter- 
Master Sergeant two paces from the side opposite to 
the guides, and in line with the pioneers. 

All other officers and non-commissioned officers 
will march past in the places prescribed for them in 
the march of an open column. The guides and sol- 



APPENDIX. 251 

diers will keep their heads steady to the Iront in pass- 
ing in review. 

The color-bearer will remain in ranks while passing 
and saluting. 

The music will begin to play just after the leading- 
company has completed the second wheel, taking 
particular care that they play in the same time or 
cadence as that in which the column is marching, 
and wheel to the left out of the column, and take a 
position opposite to, and facing the reviewing officer, 
and will continue to play until the rear of the column 
shall have passed him, when it will cease and follow 
in the rear of the battalion, unless the battalion is to 
pass in quick time also, in which case it will keep its 
position. 

The officers will salute the reviewing -officer when 
they arrive within six paces of him, and recover their 
swords when six paces past him. All officers in sa- 
luting will cast their eyes towards the reviewing 
officer. 

The Colonel, when he has saluted, at the head of 
the battalion, will place himself near the reviewing 
officer, and will remain there until the rear has passed, 
when he will rejoin the battalion. 

The colors will salute the reviewing officer when 
within six paces of him, and be raised when they 
have passed by him an equal distance. The drums 
will beat a march or ruffle, according to the rank of 
the reviewing officer, at the same time that the colors 
salute. 

When the rear of the column has passed the re- 
viewing officer, the Colonel will command : 

1. Battalion. 2. Guide left; 
and the column will be directed, by turning to the 



252 APPENDIX. 

left, to the ground which it previously occupied, when 
the Colonel will command : 

1. Column. 2. Halt. 3. Left, into line, wheel. 4. 
MARCH. 

When the line is formed in order of battle, the 
Colonel will cause the ranks to be opened, the officers 
taking post in front, and the review will terminate by 
the whole saluting, as at the beginning. 

If, however, instructions have been previously 
given to march the troops past in quick time also, the 
Colonel will, instead of halting the column and wheel- 
ing it into line as above directed, give the command : 

1. Quick time. 2. MARCH. 

At which command, the column will change the time 
of marching and pass by the reviewing officer, either 
at shouldered or at support arms, and no salute will 
be offered by either officers or men. The music will 
have kept its position opposite the reviewing officer, 
and will commence playing at the same time as is 
directed, when the battalion passes in common time, 
and as the column approaches, will place itself in 
front of, and march off with the column, and continue 
to play, until the battalion is halted on its original 
ground of formation. The review will terminate in 
the same manner as prescribed above. 

The Colonel will afterwards cause the troops to 
perform such exercises and maneuvers as the review- 
ing officer may direct. 

When two or more battalions are to be reviewed, 
they will be formed in parade order, with the proper 
intervals, and will also perform the same movements 
that are laid down for a single battalion, observing 
the additional directions that are given for such move- 



APPENDIX. 253 

ments when applied to the line. The Brigadier, and 
his staff, on foot, will place themselves opposite the 
center of the brigade, the Brigadier two paces in 
front of the rank of Colonels ; his aids two paces on 
his right, and one retired ; and the other brigade staff 
officers, those having the rank of field officers, in the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors; and those 
below that rank, in the rank of company officers. 

In passing in review, a Major-General will be four 
paces in front of the Colonel of the leading battalion 
of his division, and the Brigadiers will be on the right 
of the Colonels of the leading battalions of their brig- 
ades ; staff officers on the left of their generals. 

Upon occasions when the line exceeds two battal- 
ions, the reviewing officer may, at his option, to save 
time, cause them to march past in quick time. In 
such cases, the mounted officers only will salute. 

A number of companies less than a battalion will 
be reviewed as a battalion, and a single company as 
if it were with the battalion. In the latter case, the 
company may pass in column of platoons. 

If several brigades are to be reviewed together, or 
in one line, this farther difference will be observed : 
the reviewing personage, joined by the General of 
the division, on the right of his division, will proceed 
down the line, parallel to its front, and when near 
the Brigadiers respectively, will be saluted by their 
brigades in succession. The music of each, after the 
prescribed salute, will play while the reviewing per- 
sonage is in front or in rear of it, and only then. 

The battalions will take, in marching, intervals be- 
tween them of forty paces. 

In marching in review, with several battalions, in 
common time, the music of each succeeding battalion 
will commence to play when the music of the pre- 
ceding one has ceased, in order to follow its battalion. 



254 APPENDIX. 

When marching in quick time, the music will begin 
to play when the rear company of the preceding bat- 
talion has passed the reviewing officer. 

The reviewing officer or personage will acknow- 
ledge the salute, by raising or taking off his cap, or 
hat, when the commander of the troops salutes him ; 
and, also, when the colors pass. The remainder of 
the time occupied by the passage of the troops he 
will be covered. 

The review of Cavalry and Artillery will be con- 
ducted on similar principles, and according to the 
systems of instructions for those arms of service. 

GUARD MOUNTING. 

Camp and garrison guards will be relieved every 
twenty-four hours. The guards at outposts will or- 
dinarily be relieved in the same manner, but this 
must depend on their distances from camp, or other 
circumstances, which may sometimes require their 
continuing on duty several days. In such cases, they 
must be previously notified to provide themselves 
accordingly. 

Thirty minutes before guard mounting, a call will 
be sounded for the men warned for duty, to turn out 
on their company parades for inspection by the first 
sergeants, superintended by a commissioned officer of 
each company. Ten minutes after, a second call will 
be sounded for the duty men to repair to the regi- 
mental or garrison parade conducted by the first ser- 
geants. Each detachment, as it arrives, will, under 
the direction of the Adjutant, take post on the left of 
the one that preceded it, in open order, arms shoul- 
dered, and bayonets fixed, the supernumeraries five 
paces in the rear of the men of their respective com- 
panies. If the guards are intended for the grand 
parade, they will take post in the order prescribed 



APPENDIX. 255 

above, under the direction of the general staff officers, 
or his assistant, the adjutant of the day. 

The following regulations respecting mounting 
guards, are drawn up with reference to the grand 
parade; with a few obvious variations, they will 
equally apply to regimental or garrison parade. 

The ranks being opened and aligned, the officers 
of the guards will, at the word front, take post twelve 
paces in front of the center, in one line, according to 
rank, and with swords drawn — the sergeants in one 
rank, four paces in the rear of the officers, and the 
corporals in one rank, four paces in the rear of the 
sergeants — the whole facing to the front. 

The Adjutant of the day will dress the lines, count 
the files, verify the details by reference to the written 
orders, and tell off the guards, whilst the general 
staff officer appoints the officers and non-commissioned 
officers to the several guards, and designates the post 
which they are to occupy. 

The staff officer will then command : 

1. Officers and non-commissioned officers. 2. About — 

FACE. 3. Inspect your guards — MARCH. 

The commander of each guard then commands : 

1. Order arms. 2. Inspection of arms. 

The two highest in rank of each guard will divide 
the ranks between them, accompanied by the other 
officers, and inspect accordingly. During the inspec- 
tion the band will play. 

The inspection ended, the officers and non-com- 
missioned officers will take post in their respective 
guards, as though each guard were a company of a 
battalion, in open order, under review; at which 
time, also, the officers of the day will take post in 
front of the center of the guards, the old officer of the 



256 APPENDIX. 

day on the right of the new officer of the day, one 
pace retired. 

The staff officer will now command : 

1. Parade— REST. 2. Troop— BEAT OFF, 
when the music, beginning on the right, will beat 
down the line in front of the officers of the guards to 
the left, and back to its place on the right, where it 
will cease to play. 

The staff officer continues : 

1. Attention. 2. Shoulder — ARMS. Close order — 
MARCH. 

At the word close order, the officers will face about ; 
at march, resume their posts in line. The officers 
having taken their posts in line, the staff officer will 
command : 

Present— ARMS ; 
at which he will face to the new officer of the day, 
salute and report, " Sir, the guards are formed." The 
new officer of the day, after acknowledging the salute, 
will give the necessary instructions to the staff officer, 
who will cause the same to be executed, the staff 
officer giving the word of command. But if the staff 
officer should be senior to the officer of the day, he 
would report without saluting with the sword, and 
immediately retire. In this case, the Adjutant of the 
day would be instructed to give the orders in the fol- 
lowing paragraph, or the officer of the day would 
give them himself. 

The guard having shouldered arms, and performed 
such exercises as may be required by the officer of 
the day, the staff officer will again command : 

1. By guard (or platoon) right wheel. 2. MARCH. 
3. Pass in review. 4. Column forward. 5. Guide 
right. 6. MARCH; 



APPENDIX. 257 

when the whole will march past the officer of the day- 
according to the order of review, conducted by the 
staff officer, marching on the left of the first division, 
the Adjutant of the day on the left of the last division. 

When the column has passed the officer of the day, 
the guards will break off under their respective com- 
manders, and take the route to the several posts as- 
signed them, the staff officers breaking off at the same 
time ; the music for the parade, which has wheeled 
out of column and taken post opposite the officer of 
the day, will cease, and the old officer of the day sa- 
lute, and give the old or standing orders to the new 
officer of the day. The supernumeraries, at the same 
time, will be marched by the first sergeants to their 
respective company parades and dismissed. 

Guards which are assigned to new posts, will be 
conducted to, and established in, them by the officer 
of the day, and the staff officer detached from head- 
quarters for that purpose. 

In bad weather, the ceremony of turning off guards 
on the usual parades may be dispensed with by the 
officer of the day, and the inspection be made under 
shelter ; also, in case of guards which may have to 
mount in the night, or at the close of the day, after 
fatiguing marches, the ceremony of turning off may 
be dispensed with ; but never that of inspection. 

The officer .of the day will always be present at 
guard mounting. No other officer, except a general 
officer, will interfere with, or give any order on the 
parade to the staff officer on duty there. The com- 
mander of the troops or garrison, though under the 
rank of General, is of course an exception to this 
rule. 

The regiment that furnishes the Adjutant of the 
day, will also furnish the music for the grand parade. 

The guards are to move in the greatest order to 
9 



^Oo APPENDIX. 

their respective posts, marching by platoons when 
the road will permit. 

The officer of the old guard having his guard pa- 
raded, on the approach of the new guard, commands : 

Present— ARMS. 
The new guard will march, in quick time, past the 
old guard, at shouldered arms, officers saluting, and 
take post three or four paces on its right, where, be- 
ing aligned with it, its commander will order : 

Present— AUKS. 

The two officers will then approach each other, and 
the relieving officer take his orders from the relieved. 
Both officers will then return to their respective 
guards and command : 

1. Shoulder— ARMS. 2. Order— ARMS. 

The officer of the new guard will now direct his 
sergeant to make a list of the guard, dividing them 
into three reliefs, and placing the most steady and 
experienced at the body of the guard, and at the re- 
mote and responsible posts, and will himself proceed 
to take possession of the guard-house or guard-tent, 
and the articles and prisoners in charge of the guard. 

During the time of relieving the sentinels and of 
calling in the small posts, the commanders of the two 
guards will, when near the enemy, visit the avenues 
leading to the post, the old commander giving to the 
new all the information he may possess relative to 
the enemy. 

The detachments and sentinels from the old guard 
having come in, it will be marched at shouldered 
arms along the front of the new guard, in quick time, 
the new guard standing at presented arms, officers 



APPENDIX. 259 

saluting, and the music of both guards beating, ex- 
cept at the outposts, where it is prohibited. 

On arriving at the camp or post, the commander 
will send the detachments composing it, under the 
charge of an officer or non-commissioned officer, to 
their respective regiments, unless the officer of the 
day should be present to inspect the old gtfard, when 
he will cause the same to be done under their proper 
officers. Before the men are dismissed, their pieces 
will be drawn, or discharged at a target ; on rejoin- 
ing their companies, the chiefs of squads will exam- 
ine the arms, etc., of their men, and cause the whole 
to be put away in good order. 

When the old guard has marched^ off fifty paces, 
the officer of the new guard will order his men to 
stack their arms, or place them in the arm-racks. 

The commander of the guard will then make him- 
self acquainted with all the instructions for his post, 
visit the sentinels and question them, the officers and 
non-commissioned officers, relative to the instructions 
they may have received from other persons of the old 
guard. 

RELIEVING- SENTINELS. 

Sentinels will be relieved every two hours, unless 
the state of the weather, or other causes, should make 
it proper or necessary that it be done at shorter or 
longer intervals. 

The first relief having been designated, and ordered 
two paces to the front, the corporal of the new guard 
will take charge of it, and go to relieve the sentinels, 
accompanied by the corporal of the old guard, who 
will take command of the old sentinels when the 
whole are relieved. 

If the sentinels are numerous, the sergeants are to 
be employed, as well as the corporals, in relieving 
them. 



260 APPENDIX. 

The relief, with arms at a support, in two ranks, 
will march by a flank, conducted by the corporal on 
the side of the leading front rank man, and the men 
will be numbered alternately in the front and rear 
rank, the man on the right of the front rank being 
No. 1. Should an officer approach, the corporal will 
command; carry arms, and resume the support arms 
when-the officer is passed. 

The sentinels at the guard-house or guard-tent, 
will be the first relieved and left behind ; the one 
most distant will be the next relieved, and the others 
in succession, as the relief returns to the guard. 

When a sentinel sees the relief approaching, he 
will halt, and face to it with his arms at a shoulder. 
At six paces, tfie corporal will command : 

1. Relief. 2. HALT; 
when the relief will halt and carrv arms. The cor- 
poral will then add, "No. 1," or "No. 2," or "No. 3," 
according to the number of the post, 

Arms— PORT. 
The two sentinels will, with arms at port, then ap- 
proach each other, when the old sentinel, under the di- 
rection of the corporal, and in his hearing, will whis- 
per the instructions to the new sentinel. This done, 
the two sentinels shoulder arms, and the old sentinel 
will pass, in quick time, to his place, in rear of the 
relief. The corporal will then command : 

1. Relief. 2. Support— ARMS. 3. Forward. 4. 

MARCH; 
and the relief proceeds in the same manner, until the 
whole are relieved. 

A relief is always to be marched in the greatest 
order, and the corporals will be answerable that the 



APPENDIX. 261 

sentinels, when relieving, perform their motions with 
spirit and exactness. 

RECEPTION OF THE OFFICER OF THE DAY BY THE 
GUARD. 

When the sentry, before the guard, perceives the 
officer of the day approach, he will call, " Turn out 
the guard, officer of the day;" when the guard will 
be paraded, and salute him with presented arms. 

When the officer of the day approaches the sentry, 
before the guard at night, the latter will challenge, 
" Who comes there ?" and the first will answer, " Offi- 
cer of the day.' 1 The sentinel will reply, "Halt; 
turn out the guard; officer of the day." The guard 
will be paraded, and the commander of it will direct 
the sergeant to advance, who will say, " Advance 
officer of the day, with the countersign." The officer 
of the day will give the countersign, when the ser- 
geant, turning to the officer of the guard, says, "The 
countersign is right." The officer of the guard will 
then say, "Advance, officer of the day." He may 
also demand the parole, if he thinks necessary. The 
guard will stand at shouldered arms. 

The officer of the day will examine the guard ; see 
that they are vigilant ; that none are absent, and that 
their arms and accouterments are in order ; that the 
officers and non-commissioned officers are acquainted 
with their duty, and that the sentinels are properly 
posted, and have received proper orders. 

GRAND ROUNDS. 

The officer of the day, wishing to make his rounds, 
will direct an escort of a non-commissioned officer 
and two men to accompany him. 

When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel, the 
9* 



262 APPENDIX. 

sergeant will answer, " Grand rounds, " and the sen- 
tinel will reply, "Halt, grand rounds. Advance, 
sergeant, with the countersign." Upon which, the 
sergeant advances and gives the countersign. The 
sentinel will then cry, "Advance, rounds," and stand 
at a shoulder until they have passed. 

When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and 
is answered "Grand rounds," he will reply, "Halt, 
grand rounds. Turn out the guard; grand rounds." 
Upon which the guard will turn out, and be drawn 
up in good order, at shouldered arms, the officers 
taking their posts. The officer commanding the guard 
will then order a sergeant and two men to advance 
towards the rounds, and challenge. When within 
ten paces, the sergeant will halt, and challenge 
briskly. The sergeant of the grand rounds will an- 
swer, "Grand rounds." The sergeant of the guard 
replies, " Stand, grand rounds. Advance, sergeant 
with the countersign." The sergeant of the rounds 
advances alone, and having given the counter- 
sign, returns to his round. The sergeant of the 
guard calls to his officer, " The countersign is right ;" 
on which the officer of the guard calls, " Advance, 
rounds." The officer of the rounds then advances 
alone ; the guard standing at shouldered arms. The 
officer of the rounds passes along the front of the 
guard immediately to the officer, who keeps his post 
on the right, and gives him the parole. He then 
examines the guard, orders back his escort, and de- 
manding a new one, proceeds in the same manner to 
other guards. 

All material instructions given to a sentinel on 
post by persons entitled to make grand rounds, ought 
to be promptly notified to the commander of the 
guard. 

All general officers, as well as the commander of 



APPENDIX. 263 

the post or garrison, may visit the guards, and go the 
grand rounds, and be received in the same manner as 
prescribed for the officer of the day. 

OFFICER OF THE DAY. 

As soon as the new guard has been inarched off, 
the officer of the day will repair to the quarters of 
the commanding officer, and report himself, and re- 
ceive such further instructions as may be necessary. 

The officer of the day must see that the officer of 
the guard is furnished with the parole and counter- 
sign before retreat. 

The officer of the day will visit the guards fre- 
quently during the day, at such times as he may 
deem necessary ; and will also make his rounds, when 
he visits the guard at night, which must be done af- 
ter 12 o'clock. 

Upon being relieved, the officer of the day will 
make such remarks, in the report of the officer of the 
guard, as circumstances require, and present the same 
at head-quarters. 

OFFICER OF THE GUARD. 

It is the duty of officers on all guards to inspect all 
reliefs of sentinels, both when they go on, and come 
off their posts ; to call the rolls frequently, and by 
every means in their power, to keep the men under 
their command in the most perfect state of vigilance 
and preparation. They will be responsible for the 
security of the prisoners and property committed to 
their charge; it will be their duty to suppress all 
riots and disorders, and in case of fire to give the 
alarm, and be instrumental in extinguishing it. They 
are also watchfully to superintend the conduct of the 
non-commissioned officers, taking care that they are 
correct in the performance of their duty ; that they 



264 APPENDIX. 

maintain a proper authority, and prevent every spe- 
cies of irregularity among the men. They must par- 
ticularly ascertain that the corporals themselves are 
well informed with respect to the orders they are to 
deliver to the several sentinels, whom they must fre- 
quently visit, to be assured that they know their duty, 
and have received the proper instructions. 

Officers commanding guards, . when going to visit 
their sentinels, are to mention their intention, and 
the probable time of their absence, to the next officer 
in command. 

The officers are to remain constantly at their 
guards, except while visiting their sentinels; nor 
are they to enter any house or place of public amuse- 
ment. 

Neither officers nor soldiers are, on any account, 
to take off their clothing or accouterments while they 
are on guard, but are always to be in their uniform, 
fully equipped for the service. 

The officer who mounts the camp guard, must give 
orders to the sentinels not to suffer any person to 
pass in or out of camp, except by one of the guards ; 
nor then, till the officer of the guard has examined 
him. 

The officer of the guard must see that the counter- 
sign is duly communicated to the sentinels a little 
before twilight. 

In case one of the guard desert, the officer of the 
guard must immediately change the countersign, and 
send notice thereof to the officer of the day, who is 
to communicate the same to the other guards, and to 
head-quarters. 

The officer of the guard will send to the officer of 
the day at guard mounting, by a non-commissioned 
officer, a report of his tour of service. 



APPENDIX. 265 

DUTIES OF SENTINELS. 

Sentinels will not allow themselves to be relieved, 
except by an officer or non-commissioned officer of 
their guard or party ; nor will they receive orders 
from any other than such persons, or the command- 
ing officer, or the officer of the day ; which orders 
will be immediately notified to the commander of the 
guard, by the officer giving them. 

Orders or instructions to sentinels, will be given in 
the most distinct manner, and they will be held 
strictly accountable that all rules or regulations de- 
pending upon their vigilance and attention be punc- 
tually observed, or that breaches of them be immedi- 
ately reported. 

Sentinels must take the greatest care not to be 
surprised. They must keep themselves on the alert, 
observing everything that takes place within sight 
and hearing, and will habitually walk their posts 
briskly to and fro. They will carry their arms at sup- 
port, or on either shoulder, but will never quit them, 
or bring them to an order. In wet weather, if there 
be no sentry-box, they will secure arms. 

For a sentinel to quit his post without leave, is one 
of the most serious military offenses. It is also for- 
bidden to sentinels to hold conversation with any 
person, when not necessary for the proper discharge 
of their duty. 

During the day sentinels on the outposts must stop 
every party of men whether armed or not, until they 
have been examined by the officer of the guard. 

A sentinel placed over the colors or arms, must 
suffer no person to touch them, except by order of 
some officer, or a non-commissioned officer of the 
guard. If placed over a magazine or arsenal, or over 
supplies of any kind, he will call for the " Corporal of 
the Guard," if any person under the rank of officer 



260 APPENDIX. 

wishes to enter or touch them. Placed over prison- 
ers, he must suffer no person except an officer, or a 
non-commissioned officer of his guard, to converse 
with them ; nor must he permit the prisoners to leave 
their place of confinement. 

In case of disorder, a sentinel must call out, " The 
guard;" and if a fire take place, he must cry "Fire," 
adding the number of his post. If in either case the 
danger be great he must discharge his firelock before 
calling out. 

It is the duty of sentinels to repeat all calls made 
from posts more distant from the main body of the 
guard than their own, and no sentinel will be posted 
so distant as not be heard by the guard, either di- 
rectly or through other sentinels. 

Sentinels will present arms to general and field 
officers, to the officer of the day, and to the com- 
manding officer of the post. To all other officers they 
will carry arms. 

When a sentinel in his sentry box sees an officer 
approaching, he will stand at attention, and as the 
officer passes, will salute him, by bringing the left 
hand briskly to the musket, as high as the right 
shoulder. 

The sentinel at the guard-house, or guard-tent, 
when he sees any body of troops, or an officer entitled 
to compliment, approach, must call, "Turn out the 
guard." 

Though the regulations dispense with guards turn- 
ing out as a matter of compliment after sunset, yet 
sentinels will, when officers in uniform approach their 
posts, pay them proper attention, by facing to their 
proper front, and standing steady shouldered arms. 
This will be observed until the evening is so far ad- 
vanced, that the sentinels begin challenging. 

Immediately after receiving the countersign, and 



APPENDIX. 26? 

until reveille, sentinels must challenge all who ap- 
proach them. They must not suffer any person to 
advance nearer than the point of their bayonet, until 
they have received the countersign, placing them- 
selves in the position of arms port for that purpose. 

A sentinel in challenging will call out, "Who comes 
there?" If answered, "Friend, with the counter- 
sign," and he be instructed to pass persons with the 
countersign, he will reply, "Advance, friend, with 
the countersign." If answered "Friends," he will 
reply, "Halt, friends, advance one, with the counter- 
sign." If answered, "Relief," "Patrol," or "Grand 
rounds," he will reply, "Halt, advance sergeant, (or 
corporal,) with the countersign," and satisfy him- 
self the party is what it represents itself to be. 
If he have no authority to pass persons with the 
countersign, if the wrong countersign be given, or if 
persons have not the countersign, he will cause them 
to stand, and call, " Corporal of the guard." 

All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are 
required to observe the greatest respect towards sen- 
tinels, and no officer or other person shall make use 
of any opprobious terms towards a soldier on his post, 
or attempt to maltreat him, in any manner, under 
pain of being punished for a breach of discipline. 

ORDERS. 

Orders are either general or special. General or- 
ders, issued from the head-quarters of the army, are 
styled "General Orders;" from other head-quarters, 
they are simply styled "Orders." They are the or- 
ders of the day, and are published as circumstances 
may render it necessary. They announce the orderly 
hours at head-quarters ; the times and places of the 
distributions of supplies ; the time and order of march; 
the hours of the different beats and signals, of guard- 
mounting, and the assembling of detachments ; the 



268 APPENDIX. 

regulations of police ; the strength and composition 
of guards, and the periods of their relief; the number 
and grades of orderlies, the acts of Congress, and the 
regulations of the War Department which have re- 
ference to the troops, and with which they ought to 
be made acquainted; the appointing of General Courts 
Martial, Courts of Inquiry, Boards of Officers, and 
their sentences and opinions; the commendations or 
animadversions which the conduct of the troops may 
elicit, as well as exhortations suitable to particular 
occasions, and, in general, every occurrence proper to 
be communicated to the troops, or others interested. 

Special orders are such orders as do not relate to 
the service in general. They have reference to par- 
ticular objects and individuals only. They need not, 
therefore, be published to the whole army, or to the 
whole command of the officer who issues them. Be- 
sides the particular individual to whom such orders 
may be sent direct, they are to be communicated, as 
a matter of course, to Colonels, or other commanders 
whom they interest. 

The parole, and countersign or watchword, are is- 
sued from the head-quarters of the highest in com- 
mand. They are in the nature of orders, but are 
neither general nor special. 

The head of the order will indicate the source from 
which it emanates, as well as the place and date, and 
the foot of the order will cite the name of the com- 
mander who gives the order. 



ERRATA. 



Page 170, in 6th line, for piece, read head. Page 219, in 12th 
line, for Looker, read Socket. Page 218, in 17th line, for 
Socks, read Socket. Page 221, in 3d line from bottom, after 
the word wheel, read limber to the rear. The limber inclines 
to the right and takes its place by wheeling about to the left, 
and the piece is limbered as before.